1)Paul and Ava are parents to 3-month-old Kim. After giving birth, Ava decided to spend several months at home caring for Kim, but she plans to return to her full-time job as soon as her 12-week mate 1)Paul and Ava are parents to 3-month-old Kim.  After giving birth, Ava decided to spend several months at home caring for Kim, but she plans to return to her full-time job as soon as her 12-week maternity leave ends.  Some of Ava’s friends have expressed concerns about her returning to work so soon, and Paul’s parents are worried that Kim may experience learning and behavioral problems if she begins attending child care at such a young age.  Ave enjoys being a stay-at-home mom but she and Paul need the income that Ava’s job will provide.   Using what you have read in the text as a guide, what advice would you give Paul and Ava?  Are the concerns of friends and family valid?  Why or why not? What type of support can Paul provide after Ava returns to work?  What qualities should Paul and Ava look for when choosing a child-care center? 2)Aiden is a difficult 2-year-old whose parents both work long hours for low pay and do not have reliable child-care arrangements.  They sometimes use angry, punitive discipline, and Aiden typically reacts with defiance and disobedience.  His parents respond inconsistently.  Sometimes they reward his noncompliance by giving in to it, but at other times they continue their coercive tactics.   Using what you have read in the text, identify some changes that might improve the goodness of fit for these parents and their children.   Must contain 100 words for each  scenario Show more

1)Paul and Ava are parents to 3-month-old Kim.  After giving birth, Ava decided to spend several months at home caring for Kim, but she plans to return to her full-time job as soon as her 12-week mate                                                         1)Paul and Ava are parents to 3-month-old Kim.  After giving birth, Ava decided to spend several months at home caring for Kim, but she plans to return to her full-time job as soon as her 12-week maternity leave ends.  Some of Ava’s friends have expressed concerns about her returning to work so soon, and Paul’s parents are worried that Kim may experience learning and behavioral problems if she begins attending child care at such a young age.  Ave enjoys being a stay-at-home mom but she and Paul need the income that Ava’s job will provide.    Using what you have read in the text as a guide, what advice would you give Paul and Ava?  Are the concerns of friends and family valid?  Why or why not? What type of support can Paul provide after Ava returns to work?  What qualities should Paul and Ava look for when choosing a child-care center?  2)Aiden is a difficult 2-year-old whose parents both work long hours for low pay and do not have reliable child-care arrangements.  They sometimes use angry, punitive discipline, and Aiden typically reacts with defiance and disobedience.  His parents respond inconsistently.  Sometimes they reward his noncompliance by giving in to it, but at other times they continue their coercive tactics.    Using what you have read in the text, identify some changes that might improve the goodness of fit for these parents and their children.    Must contain 100 words for each  scenario                                                    Show more

1)Paul and Ava are parents to 3-month-old Kim.  After giving birth, Ava decided to spend several months at home caring for Kim, but she plans to return to her full-time job as soon as her 12-week maternity leave ends.  Some of Ava’s friends have expressed concerns about her returning to work so soon, and Paul’s parents are worried that Kim may experience learning and behavioral problems if she begins attending child care at such a young age.  Ave enjoys being a stay-at-home mom but she and Paul need the income that Ava’s job will provide.  

Using what you have read in the text as a guide, what advice would you give Paul and Ava?  Are the concerns of friends and family valid?  Why or why not? What type of support can Paul provide after Ava returns to work?  What qualities should Paul and Ava look for when choosing a child-care center?

2)Aiden is a difficult 2-year-old whose parents both work long hours for low pay and do not have reliable child-care arrangements.  They sometimes use angry, punitive discipline, and Aiden typically reacts with defiance and disobedience.  His parents respond inconsistently.  Sometimes they reward his noncompliance by giving in to it, but at other times they continue their coercive tactics.  

Using what you have read in the text, identify some changes that might improve the goodness of fit for these parents and their children.  

Must contain 100 words for each  scenario

EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen. Some parts of this text may pro EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may promote ideas seem antediluvian to us today.  Read through the excerpt and answer the questions that follow. “Duties of American Citizenship” by Theodore Roosevelt Buffalo, New York, January 26, 1883 Of course, in one sense, the first essential for a man’s being a good citizen is his possession of the home virtues of which we think when we call a man by the emphatic adjective of manly. No man can be a good citizen who is not a good husband and a good father, who is not honest in his dealings with other men and women, faithful to his friends and fearless in the presence of his foes, who has not got a sound heart, a sound mind, and a sound body; exactly as no amount of attention to civil duties will save a nation if the domestic life is undermined, or there is lack of the rude military virtues which alone can assure a country’s position in the world. In a free republic the ideal citizen must be one willing and able to take arms for the defense of the flag, exactly as the ideal citizen must be the father of many healthy children. A race must be strong and vigorous; it must be a race of good fighters and good breeders, else its wisdom will come to naught and its virtue be ineffective; and no sweetness and delicacy, no love for and appreciation of beauty in art or literature, no capacity for building up material prosperity can possibly atone for the lack of the great virile virtues. But this is aside from my subject, for what I wish to talk of is the attitude of the American citizen in civic life. It ought to be axiomatic in this country that every man must devote a reasonable share of his time to doing his duty in the Political life of the community. No man has a right to shirk his political duties under whatever plea of pleasure or business; and while such shirking may be pardoned in those of small cleans it is entirely unpardonable in those among whom it is most common–in the people whose circumstances give them freedom in the struggle for life. In so far as the community grows to think rightly, it will likewise grow to regard the young man of means who shirks his duty to the State in time of peace as being only one degree worse than the man who thus shirks it in time of war. A great many of our men in business, or of our young men who are bent on enjoying life (as they have a perfect right to do if only they do not sacrifice other things to enjoyment), rather plume themselves upon being good citizens if they even vote; yet voting is the very least of their duties, Nothing worth gaining is ever gained without effort. You can no more have freedom without striving and suffering for it than you can win success as a banker or a lawyer without labor and effort, without self-denial in youth and the display of a ready and alert intelligence in middle age. The people who say that they have not time to attend to politics are simply saying that they are unfit to live in a free community. Their place is under a despotism; or if they are content to do nothing but vote, you can take despotism tempered by an occasional plebiscite, like that of the second Napoleon. In one of Lowell’s magnificent stanzas about the Civil War he speaks of the fact which his countrymen were then learning, that freedom is not a gift that tarries long in the hands of cowards: nor yet does it tarry long in the hands of the sluggard and the idler, in the hands of the man so much absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure or in the pursuit of gain, or so much wrapped up in his own easy home life as to be unable to take his part in the rough struggle with his fellow men for political supremacy. If freedom is worth having, if the right of self-government is a valuable right, then the one and the other must be retained exactly as our forefathers acquired them, by labor, and especially by labor in organization, that is in combination with our fellows who have the same interests and the same principles. We should not accept the excuse of the business man who attributed his failure to the fact that his social duties were so pleasant and engrossing that he had no time left for work in his office; nor would we pay much heed to his further statement that he did not like business anyhow because he thought the morals of the business community by no means what they should be, and saw that the great successes were most often won by men of the Jay Gould stamp. It is just the same way with politics. It makes one feel half angry and half amused, and wholly contemptuous, to find men of high business or social standing in the community saying that they really have not got time to go to ward meetings, to organize political clubs, and to take a personal share in all the important details of practical politics; men who further urge against their going the fact that they think the condition of political morality low, and are afraid that they may be required to do what is not right if they go into politics. The first duty of an American citizen, then, is that he shall work in politics; his second duty is that he shall do that work in a practical manner; and his third is that it shall be done in accord with the highest principles of honor and justice. Of course, it is not possible to define rigidly just the way in which the work shall be made practical. Each man’s individual temper and convictions must be taken into account. To a certain extent his work must be done in accordance with his individual beliefs and theories of right and wrong. To a yet greater extent it must be done in combination with others, he yielding or modifying certain of his own theories and beliefs so as to enable him to stand on a common ground with his fellows, who have likewise yielded or modified certain of their theories and beliefs. There is no need of dogmatizing about independence on the one hand or party allegiance on the other. There are occasions when it may be the highest duty of any man to act outside of parties and against the one with which he has himself been hitherto identified; and there may be many more occasions when his highest duty is to sacrifice some of his own cherished opinions for the sake of the success of the party which he on the whole believes to be right. I do not think that the average citizen, at least in one of our great cities, can very well manage to support his own party all the time on every issue, local and otherwise; at any rate if he can do so he has been more fortunately placed than I have been. On the other hand, I am fully convinced that to do the best work people must be organized; and of course an organization is really a party, whether it be a great organization covering the whole nation and numbering its millions of adherents, or an association of citizens in a particular locality, banded together to win a certain specific victory, as, for instance, that of municipal reform. Somebody has said that a racing-yacht, like a good rifle, is a bundle of incompatibilities; that you must get the utmost possible sail power without sacrificing some other quality if you really do get the utmost sail power, that, in short you have got to make more or less of a compromise on each in order to acquire the dozen things needful; but, of course, in making this compromise you must be very careful for the sake of something unimportant not to sacrifice any of the great principles of successful naval architecture. Well, it is about so with a man’s political work. He has got to preserve his independence on the one hand; and on the other, unless he wishes to be a wholly ineffective crank, he has got to have some sense of party allegiance and party responsibility, and he has got to realize that in any given exigency it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice one quality, or it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice the other. If it is difficult to lay down any fixed rules for party action in the abstract; it would, of course, be wholly impossible to lay them down for party action in the concrete, with reference to the organizations of the present day. I think that we ought to be broad-minded enough to recognize the fact that a good citizen, striving with fearlessness, honesty, and common sense to do his best for the nation, can render service to it in many different ways, and by connection with many different organizations. It is well for a man if he is able conscientiously to feel that his views on the great questions of the day, on such questions as the tariff, finance, immigration, the regulation of the liquor traffic, and others like them, are such as to put him in accord with the bulk of those of his fellow citizens who compose one of the greatest parties: but it is perfectly supposable that he may feel so strongly for or against certain principles held by one party, or certain principles held by the other, that he is unable to give his full adherence to either. In such a case I feel that he has no right to plead this lack of agreement with either party as an excuse for refraining from active political work prior to election. It will, of course, bar him from the primaries of the two leading parties, and preclude him from doing his share in organizing their management; but, unless he is very unfortunate, he can surely find a number of men who are in the same position as himself and who agree with him on some specific piece of political work, and they can turn in practically and effectively long before election to try to do this new piece of work in a practical manner. One seemingly very necessary caution to utter is, that a man who goes into politics should not expect to reform everything right off, with a jump. I know many excellent young men who, when awakened to the fact that they have neglected their political duties, feel an immediate impulse to form themselves into an organization which shall forthwith purify politics everywhere, national, State, and city alike; and I know of a man who having gone round once to a primary, and having, of course, been unable to accomplish anything in a place where he knew no one and could not combine with anyone, returned saying it was quite useless for a good citizen to try to accomplish anything in such a manner. To these too hopeful or too easily discouraged people I always feel like reading Artemus Ward’s article upon the people of his town who came together in a meeting to resolve that the town should support the Union and the Civil War, but were unwilling to take any part in putting down the rebellion unless they could go as brigadier-generals. After the battle of Bull Run there were a good many hundreds of thousands of young men in the North who felt it to be their duty to enter the Northern armies; but no one of them who possessed much intelligence expected to take high place at the outset, or anticipated that individual action would be of decisive importance in any given campaign. He went in as private or sergeant, lieutenant or captain, as the case might be, and did his duty in his company, in his regiment, after a while in his brigade. When Ball’s Bluff and Bull Run succeeded the utter failure of the Peninsular campaign, when the terrible defeat of Fredericksburg was followed by the scarcely less disastrous day at Chancellorsville he did not announce (if he had any pluck or manliness about him) that he considered it quite useless for any self-respecting citizen to enter the Army of the Potomac, because he really was not of much weight in its councils, and did not approve of its management; he simply gritted his teeth and went doggedly on with his duty, grieving over, but not disheartened at the innumerable shortcomings and follies committed by those who helped to guide the destinies of the army, recognizing also the bravery, the patience, intelligence, and resolution with which other men in high places offset the follies and shortcomings and persevering with equal mind through triumph and defeat until finally he saw the tide of failure turn at Gettysburg and the full flood of victory come with Appomattox. I do wish that more of our good citizens would go into politics, and would do it in the same spirit with which their fathers went into the Federal armies. Begin with the little thing, and do not expect to accomplish anything without an effort. Of course, if you go to a primary just once, never having taken the trouble to know any of the other people who go there you will find yourself wholly out of place; but if you keep on attending and try to form associations with other men whom you meet at the political gatherings, or whom you can persuade to attend them, you will very soon find yourself a weight. In the same way, if a man feels that the politics of his city, for instance, are very corrupt and wants to reform them, it would be an excellent idea for him to begin with his district. If he Joins with other people, who think as he does, to form a club where abstract political virtue will be discussed he may do a great deal of good. We need such clubs; but he must also get to know his own ward or his own district, put himself in communication with the decent people in that district, of whom we may rest assured there will be many, willing and able to do something practical for the procurance of better government Let him set to work to procure a better assemblyman or better alderman before he tries his hand at making a mayor, a governor, or a president. If he begins at the top he may make a brilliant temporary success, but the chances are a thousand to one that he will only be defeated eventually; and in no event will the good he does stand on the same broad and permanent foundation as if he had begun at the bottom. Of course, one or two of his efforts may be failures; but if he has the right stuff in him he will go ahead and do his duty irrespective of whether he meets with success or defeat. It is perfectly right to consider the question of failure while shaping one’s efforts to succeed in the struggle for the right; but there should be no consideration of it whatsoever when the question is as to whether one should or should not make a struggle for the right. When once a band of one hundred and fifty or two hundred honest, intelligent men, who mean business and know their business, is found in any district, whether in one of the regular organizations or outside, you can guarantee that the local politicians of that district will begin to treat it with a combination of fear, hatred, and respect, and that its influence will be felt; and that while sometimes men will be elected to office in direct defiance of its wishes, more often the successful candidates will feel that they have to pay some regard to its demands for public decency and honesty. “Duties of American Citizenship” – Questions (Please answer on a separate piece of paper and submit it through Blackboard) 1.  Are you able to identify any idiomatic collocations in this speech?  What purpose do they serve?  Are they effective? 2.  As I mentioned in the introduction, some idea promoted in this speech may seem outdated.  Can you identify anything that doesn’t seem to fit with modern life?  Anything that seems inappropriate? 3.  Although this is an excerpt and not the entire speech, go through the part given here a outline the basic ideas.  The outline should be organized by paragraph in the following fashion: Paragraph 1:             Idea 1             Example             Point             Idea 2 Paragraph 2: 4.  In your own words, summarize the speech.  What is he saying?  How is he saying it? 5.  Do you think this is a good speech?  Is it effective? 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EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes   Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may pro                                                         EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes  Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may promote ideas seem antediluvian to us today.  Read through the excerpt and answer the questions that follow.  “Duties of American Citizenship” by Theodore Roosevelt  Buffalo, New York, January 26, 1883  Of course, in one sense, the first essential for a man’s being a good citizen is his possession of the home virtues of which we think when we call a man by the emphatic adjective of manly. No man can be a good citizen who is not a good husband and a good father, who is not honest in his dealings with other men and women, faithful to his friends and fearless in the presence of his foes, who has not got a sound heart, a sound mind, and a sound body; exactly as no amount of attention to civil duties will save a nation if the domestic life is undermined, or there is lack of the rude military virtues which alone can assure a country’s position in the world. In a free republic the ideal citizen must be one willing and able to take arms for the defense of the flag, exactly as the ideal citizen must be the father of many healthy children. A race must be strong and vigorous; it must be a race of good fighters and good breeders, else its wisdom will come to naught and its virtue be ineffective; and no sweetness and delicacy, no love for and appreciation of beauty in art or literature, no capacity for building up material prosperity can possibly atone for the lack of the great virile virtues.  But this is aside from my subject, for what I wish to talk of is the attitude of the American citizen in civic life. It ought to be axiomatic in this country that every man must devote a reasonable share of his time to doing his duty in the Political life of the community. No man has a right to shirk his political duties under whatever plea of pleasure or business; and while such shirking may be pardoned in those of small cleans it is entirely unpardonable in those among whom it is most common–in the people whose circumstances give them freedom in the struggle for life. In so far as the community grows to think rightly, it will likewise grow to regard the young man of means who shirks his duty to the State in time of peace as being only one degree worse than the man who thus shirks it in time of war. A great many of our men in business, or of our young men who are bent on enjoying life (as they have a perfect right to do if only they do not sacrifice other things to enjoyment), rather plume themselves upon being good citizens if they even vote; yet voting is the very least of their duties, Nothing worth gaining is ever gained without effort. You can no more have freedom without striving and suffering for it than you can win success as a banker or a lawyer without labor and effort, without self-denial in youth and the display of a ready and alert intelligence in middle age. The people who say that they have not time to attend to politics are simply saying that they are unfit to live in a free community. Their place is under a despotism; or if they are content to do nothing but vote, you can take despotism tempered by an occasional plebiscite, like that of the second Napoleon. In one of Lowell’s magnificent stanzas about the Civil War he speaks of the fact which his countrymen were then learning, that freedom is not a gift that tarries long in the hands of cowards: nor yet does it tarry long in the hands of the sluggard and the idler, in the hands of the man so much absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure or in the pursuit of gain, or so much wrapped up in his own easy home life as to be unable to take his part in the rough struggle with his fellow men for political supremacy. If freedom is worth having, if the right of self-government is a valuable right, then the one and the other must be retained exactly as our forefathers acquired them, by labor, and especially by labor in organization, that is in combination with our fellows who have the same interests and the same principles. We should not accept the excuse of the business man who attributed his failure to the fact that his social duties were so pleasant and engrossing that he had no time left for work in his office; nor would we pay much heed to his further statement that he did not like business anyhow because he thought the morals of the business community by no means what they should be, and saw that the great successes were most often won by men of the Jay Gould stamp. It is just the same way with politics. It makes one feel half angry and half amused, and wholly contemptuous, to find men of high business or social standing in the community saying that they really have not got time to go to ward meetings, to organize political clubs, and to take a personal share in all the important details of practical politics; men who further urge against their going the fact that they think the condition of political morality low, and are afraid that they may be required to do what is not right if they go into politics.  The first duty of an American citizen, then, is that he shall work in politics; his second duty is that he shall do that work in a practical manner; and his third is that it shall be done in accord with the highest principles of honor and justice. Of course, it is not possible to define rigidly just the way in which the work shall be made practical. Each man’s individual temper and convictions must be taken into account. To a certain extent his work must be done in accordance with his individual beliefs and theories of right and wrong. To a yet greater extent it must be done in combination with others, he yielding or modifying certain of his own theories and beliefs so as to enable him to stand on a common ground with his fellows, who have likewise yielded or modified certain of their theories and beliefs. There is no need of dogmatizing about independence on the one hand or party allegiance on the other. There are occasions when it may be the highest duty of any man to act outside of parties and against the one with which he has himself been hitherto identified; and there may be many more occasions when his highest duty is to sacrifice some of his own cherished opinions for the sake of the success of the party which he on the whole believes to be right. I do not think that the average citizen, at least in one of our great cities, can very well manage to support his own party all the time on every issue, local and otherwise; at any rate if he can do so he has been more fortunately placed than I have been. On the other hand, I am fully convinced that to do the best work people must be organized; and of course an organization is really a party, whether it be a great organization covering the whole nation and numbering its millions of adherents, or an association of citizens in a particular locality, banded together to win a certain specific victory, as, for instance, that of municipal reform. Somebody has said that a racing-yacht, like a good rifle, is a bundle of incompatibilities; that you must get the utmost possible sail power without sacrificing some other quality if you really do get the utmost sail power, that, in short you have got to make more or less of a compromise on each in order to acquire the dozen things needful; but, of course, in making this compromise you must be very careful for the sake of something unimportant not to sacrifice any of the great principles of successful naval architecture. Well, it is about so with a man’s political work. He has got to preserve his independence on the one hand; and on the other, unless he wishes to be a wholly ineffective crank, he has got to have some sense of party allegiance and party responsibility, and he has got to realize that in any given exigency it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice one quality, or it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice the other.  If it is difficult to lay down any fixed rules for party action in the abstract; it would, of course, be wholly impossible to lay them down for party action in the concrete, with reference to the organizations of the present day. I think that we ought to be broad-minded enough to recognize the fact that a good citizen, striving with fearlessness, honesty, and common sense to do his best for the nation, can render service to it in many different ways, and by connection with many different organizations. It is well for a man if he is able conscientiously to feel that his views on the great questions of the day, on such questions as the tariff, finance, immigration, the regulation of the liquor traffic, and others like them, are such as to put him in accord with the bulk of those of his fellow citizens who compose one of the greatest parties: but it is perfectly supposable that he may feel so strongly for or against certain principles held by one party, or certain principles held by the other, that he is unable to give his full adherence to either. In such a case I feel that he has no right to plead this lack of agreement with either party as an excuse for refraining from active political work prior to election. It will, of course, bar him from the primaries of the two leading parties, and preclude him from doing his share in organizing their management; but, unless he is very unfortunate, he can surely find a number of men who are in the same position as himself and who agree with him on some specific piece of political work, and they can turn in practically and effectively long before election to try to do this new piece of work in a practical manner.  One seemingly very necessary caution to utter is, that a man who goes into politics should not expect to reform everything right off, with a jump. I know many excellent young men who, when awakened to the fact that they have neglected their political duties, feel an immediate impulse to form themselves into an organization which shall forthwith purify politics everywhere, national, State, and city alike; and I know of a man who having gone round once to a primary, and having, of course, been unable to accomplish anything in a place where he knew no one and could not combine with anyone, returned saying it was quite useless for a good citizen to try to accomplish anything in such a manner. To these too hopeful or too easily discouraged people I always feel like reading Artemus Ward’s article upon the people of his town who came together in a meeting to resolve that the town should support the Union and the Civil War, but were unwilling to take any part in putting down the rebellion unless they could go as brigadier-generals. After the battle of Bull Run there were a good many hundreds of thousands of young men in the North who felt it to be their duty to enter the Northern armies; but no one of them who possessed much intelligence expected to take high place at the outset, or anticipated that individual action would be of decisive importance in any given campaign. He went in as private or sergeant, lieutenant or captain, as the case might be, and did his duty in his company, in his regiment, after a while in his brigade. When Ball’s Bluff and Bull Run succeeded the utter failure of the Peninsular campaign, when the terrible defeat of Fredericksburg was followed by the scarcely less disastrous day at Chancellorsville he did not announce (if he had any pluck or manliness about him) that he considered it quite useless for any self-respecting citizen to enter the Army of the Potomac, because he really was not of much weight in its councils, and did not approve of its management; he simply gritted his teeth and went doggedly on with his duty, grieving over, but not disheartened at the innumerable shortcomings and follies committed by those who helped to guide the destinies of the army, recognizing also the bravery, the patience, intelligence, and resolution with which other men in high places offset the follies and shortcomings and persevering with equal mind through triumph and defeat until finally he saw the tide of failure turn at Gettysburg and the full flood of victory come with Appomattox.  I do wish that more of our good citizens would go into politics, and would do it in the same spirit with which their fathers went into the Federal armies. Begin with the little thing, and do not expect to accomplish anything without an effort. Of course, if you go to a primary just once, never having taken the trouble to know any of the other people who go there you will find yourself wholly out of place; but if you keep on attending and try to form associations with other men whom you meet at the political gatherings, or whom you can persuade to attend them, you will very soon find yourself a weight. In the same way, if a man feels that the politics of his city, for instance, are very corrupt and wants to reform them, it would be an excellent idea for him to begin with his district. If he Joins with other people, who think as he does, to form a club where abstract political virtue will be discussed he may do a great deal of good. We need such clubs; but he must also get to know his own ward or his own district, put himself in communication with the decent people in that district, of whom we may rest assured there will be many, willing and able to do something practical for the procurance of better government Let him set to work to procure a better assemblyman or better alderman before he tries his hand at making a mayor, a governor, or a president. If he begins at the top he may make a brilliant temporary success, but the chances are a thousand to one that he will only be defeated eventually; and in no event will the good he does stand on the same broad and permanent foundation as if he had begun at the bottom. Of course, one or two of his efforts may be failures; but if he has the right stuff in him he will go ahead and do his duty irrespective of whether he meets with success or defeat. It is perfectly right to consider the question of failure while shaping one’s efforts to succeed in the struggle for the right; but there should be no consideration of it whatsoever when the question is as to whether one should or should not make a struggle for the right. When once a band of one hundred and fifty or two hundred honest, intelligent men, who mean business and know their business, is found in any district, whether in one of the regular organizations or outside, you can guarantee that the local politicians of that district will begin to treat it with a combination of fear, hatred, and respect, and that its influence will be felt; and that while sometimes men will be elected to office in direct defiance of its wishes, more often the successful candidates will feel that they have to pay some regard to its demands for public decency and honesty.  “Duties of American Citizenship” – Questions (Please answer on a separate piece of paper and submit it through Blackboard)  1.  Are you able to identify any idiomatic collocations in this speech?  What purpose do they serve?  Are they effective?  2.  As I mentioned in the introduction, some idea promoted in this speech may seem outdated.  Can you identify anything that doesn’t seem to fit with modern life?  Anything that seems inappropriate?  3.  Although this is an excerpt and not the entire speech, go through the part given here a outline the basic ideas.  The outline should be organized by paragraph in the following fashion:  Paragraph 1:              Idea 1              Example              Point              Idea 2  Paragraph 2:  4.  In your own words, summarize the speech.  What is he saying?  How is he saying it?  5.  Do you think this is a good speech?  Is it effective?                                                    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EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes

Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may promote ideas seem antediluvian to us today.  Read through the excerpt and answer the questions that follow.

“Duties of American Citizenship” by Theodore Roosevelt

Buffalo, New York, January 26, 1883

Of course, in one sense, the first essential for a man’s being a good citizen is his possession of the home virtues of which we think when we call a man by the emphatic adjective of manly. No man can be a good citizen who is not a good husband and a good father, who is not honest in his dealings with other men and women, faithful to his friends and fearless in the presence of his foes, who has not got a sound heart, a sound mind, and a sound body; exactly as no amount of attention to civil duties will save a nation if the domestic life is undermined, or there is lack of the rude military virtues which alone can assure a country’s position in the world. In a free republic the ideal citizen must be one willing and able to take arms for the defense of the flag, exactly as the ideal citizen must be the father of many healthy children. A race must be strong and vigorous; it must be a race of good fighters and good breeders, else its wisdom will come to naught and its virtue be ineffective; and no sweetness and delicacy, no love for and appreciation of beauty in art or literature, no capacity for building up material prosperity can possibly atone for the lack of the great virile virtues.

But this is aside from my subject, for what I wish to talk of is the attitude of the American citizen in civic life. It ought to be axiomatic in this country that every man must devote a reasonable share of his time to doing his duty in the Political life of the community. No man has a right to shirk his political duties under whatever plea of pleasure or business; and while such shirking may be pardoned in those of small cleans it is entirely unpardonable in those among whom it is most common–in the people whose circumstances give them freedom in the struggle for life. In so far as the community grows to think rightly, it will likewise grow to regard the young man of means who shirks his duty to the State in time of peace as being only one degree worse than the man who thus shirks it in time of war. A great many of our men in business, or of our young men who are bent on enjoying life (as they have a perfect right to do if only they do not sacrifice other things to enjoyment), rather plume themselves upon being good citizens if they even vote; yet voting is the very least of their duties, Nothing worth gaining is ever gained without effort. You can no more have freedom without striving and suffering for it than you can win success as a banker or a lawyer without labor and effort, without self-denial in youth and the display of a ready and alert intelligence in middle age. The people who say that they have not time to attend to politics are simply saying that they are unfit to live in a free community. Their place is under a despotism; or if they are content to do nothing but vote, you can take despotism tempered by an occasional plebiscite, like that of the second Napoleon. In one of Lowell’s magnificent stanzas about the Civil War he speaks of the fact which his countrymen were then learning, that freedom is not a gift that tarries long in the hands of cowards: nor yet does it tarry long in the hands of the sluggard and the idler, in the hands of the man so much absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure or in the pursuit of gain, or so much wrapped up in his own easy home life as to be unable to take his part in the rough struggle with his fellow men for political supremacy. If freedom is worth having, if the right of self-government is a valuable right, then the one and the other must be retained exactly as our forefathers acquired them, by labor, and especially by labor in organization, that is in combination with our fellows who have the same interests and the same principles. We should not accept the excuse of the business man who attributed his failure to the fact that his social duties were so pleasant and engrossing that he had no time left for work in his office; nor would we pay much heed to his further statement that he did not like business anyhow because he thought the morals of the business community by no means what they should be, and saw that the great successes were most often won by men of the Jay Gould stamp. It is just the same way with politics. It makes one feel half angry and half amused, and wholly contemptuous, to find men of high business or social standing in the community saying that they really have not got time to go to ward meetings, to organize political clubs, and to take a personal share in all the important details of practical politics; men who further urge against their going the fact that they think the condition of political morality low, and are afraid that they may be required to do what is not right if they go into politics.

The first duty of an American citizen, then, is that he shall work in politics; his second duty is that he shall do that work in a practical manner; and his third is that it shall be done in accord with the highest principles of honor and justice. Of course, it is not possible to define rigidly just the way in which the work shall be made practical. Each man’s individual temper and convictions must be taken into account. To a certain extent his work must be done in accordance with his individual beliefs and theories of right and wrong. To a yet greater extent it must be done in combination with others, he yielding or modifying certain of his own theories and beliefs so as to enable him to stand on a common ground with his fellows, who have likewise yielded or modified certain of their theories and beliefs. There is no need of dogmatizing about independence on the one hand or party allegiance on the other. There are occasions when it may be the highest duty of any man to act outside of parties and against the one with which he has himself been hitherto identified; and there may be many more occasions when his highest duty is to sacrifice some of his own cherished opinions for the sake of the success of the party which he on the whole believes to be right. I do not think that the average citizen, at least in one of our great cities, can very well manage to support his own party all the time on every issue, local and otherwise; at any rate if he can do so he has been more fortunately placed than I have been. On the other hand, I am fully convinced that to do the best work people must be organized; and of course an organization is really a party, whether it be a great organization covering the whole nation and numbering its millions of adherents, or an association of citizens in a particular locality, banded together to win a certain specific victory, as, for instance, that of municipal reform. Somebody has said that a racing-yacht, like a good rifle, is a bundle of incompatibilities; that you must get the utmost possible sail power without sacrificing some other quality if you really do get the utmost sail power, that, in short you have got to make more or less of a compromise on each in order to acquire the dozen things needful; but, of course, in making this compromise you must be very careful for the sake of something unimportant not to sacrifice any of the great principles of successful naval architecture. Well, it is about so with a man’s political work. He has got to preserve his independence on the one hand; and on the other, unless he wishes to be a wholly ineffective crank, he has got to have some sense of party allegiance and party responsibility, and he has got to realize that in any given exigency it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice one quality, or it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice the other.

If it is difficult to lay down any fixed rules for party action in the abstract; it would, of course, be wholly impossible to lay them down for party action in the concrete, with reference to the organizations of the present day. I think that we ought to be broad-minded enough to recognize the fact that a good citizen, striving with fearlessness, honesty, and common sense to do his best for the nation, can render service to it in many different ways, and by connection with many different organizations. It is well for a man if he is able conscientiously to feel that his views on the great questions of the day, on such questions as the tariff, finance, immigration, the regulation of the liquor traffic, and others like them, are such as to put him in accord with the bulk of those of his fellow citizens who compose one of the greatest parties: but it is perfectly supposable that he may feel so strongly for or against certain principles held by one party, or certain principles held by the other, that he is unable to give his full adherence to either. In such a case I feel that he has no right to plead this lack of agreement with either party as an excuse for refraining from active political work prior to election. It will, of course, bar him from the primaries of the two leading parties, and preclude him from doing his share in organizing their management; but, unless he is very unfortunate, he can surely find a number of men who are in the same position as himself and who agree with him on some specific piece of political work, and they can turn in practically and effectively long before election to try to do this new piece of work in a practical manner.

One seemingly very necessary caution to utter is, that a man who goes into politics should not expect to reform everything right off, with a jump. I know many excellent young men who, when awakened to the fact that they have neglected their political duties, feel an immediate impulse to form themselves into an organization which shall forthwith purify politics everywhere, national, State, and city alike; and I know of a man who having gone round once to a primary, and having, of course, been unable to accomplish anything in a place where he knew no one and could not combine with anyone, returned saying it was quite useless for a good citizen to try to accomplish anything in such a manner. To these too hopeful or too easily discouraged people I always feel like reading Artemus Ward’s article upon the people of his town who came together in a meeting to resolve that the town should support the Union and the Civil War, but were unwilling to take any part in putting down the rebellion unless they could go as brigadier-generals. After the battle of Bull Run there were a good many hundreds of thousands of young men in the North who felt it to be their duty to enter the Northern armies; but no one of them who possessed much intelligence expected to take high place at the outset, or anticipated that individual action would be of decisive importance in any given campaign. He went in as private or sergeant, lieutenant or captain, as the case might be, and did his duty in his company, in his regiment, after a while in his brigade. When Ball’s Bluff and Bull Run succeeded the utter failure of the Peninsular campaign, when the terrible defeat of Fredericksburg was followed by the scarcely less disastrous day at Chancellorsville he did not announce (if he had any pluck or manliness about him) that he considered it quite useless for any self-respecting citizen to enter the Army of the Potomac, because he really was not of much weight in its councils, and did not approve of its management; he simply gritted his teeth and went doggedly on with his duty, grieving over, but not disheartened at the innumerable shortcomings and follies committed by those who helped to guide the destinies of the army, recognizing also the bravery, the patience, intelligence, and resolution with which other men in high places offset the follies and shortcomings and persevering with equal mind through triumph and defeat until finally he saw the tide of failure turn at Gettysburg and the full flood of victory come with Appomattox.

I do wish that more of our good citizens would go into politics, and would do it in the same spirit with which their fathers went into the Federal armies. Begin with the little thing, and do not expect to accomplish anything without an effort. Of course, if you go to a primary just once, never having taken the trouble to know any of the other people who go there you will find yourself wholly out of place; but if you keep on attending and try to form associations with other men whom you meet at the political gatherings, or whom you can persuade to attend them, you will very soon find yourself a weight. In the same way, if a man feels that the politics of his city, for instance, are very corrupt and wants to reform them, it would be an excellent idea for him to begin with his district. If he Joins with other people, who think as he does, to form a club where abstract political virtue will be discussed he may do a great deal of good. We need such clubs; but he must also get to know his own ward or his own district, put himself in communication with the decent people in that district, of whom we may rest assured there will be many, willing and able to do something practical for the procurance of better government Let him set to work to procure a better assemblyman or better alderman before he tries his hand at making a mayor, a governor, or a president. If he begins at the top he may make a brilliant temporary success, but the chances are a thousand to one that he will only be defeated eventually; and in no event will the good he does stand on the same broad and permanent foundation as if he had begun at the bottom. Of course, one or two of his efforts may be failures; but if he has the right stuff in him he will go ahead and do his duty irrespective of whether he meets with success or defeat. It is perfectly right to consider the question of failure while shaping one’s efforts to succeed in the struggle for the right; but there should be no consideration of it whatsoever when the question is as to whether one should or should not make a struggle for the right. When once a band of one hundred and fifty or two hundred honest, intelligent men, who mean business and know their business, is found in any district, whether in one of the regular organizations or outside, you can guarantee that the local politicians of that district will begin to treat it with a combination of fear, hatred, and respect, and that its influence will be felt; and that while sometimes men will be elected to office in direct defiance of its wishes, more often the successful candidates will feel that they have to pay some regard to its demands for public decency and honesty.

“Duties of American Citizenship” – Questions (Please answer on a separate piece of paper and submit it through Blackboard)

1.  Are you able to identify any idiomatic collocations in this speech?  What purpose do they serve?  Are they effective?

2.  As I mentioned in the introduction, some idea promoted in this speech may seem outdated.  Can you identify anything that doesn’t seem to fit with modern life?  Anything that seems inappropriate?

3.  Although this is an excerpt and not the entire speech, go through the part given here a outline the basic ideas.  The outline should be organized by paragraph in the following fashion:

Paragraph 1:

            Idea 1

            Example

            Point

            Idea 2

Paragraph 2:

4.  In your own words, summarize the speech.  What is he saying?  How is he saying it?

5.  Do you think this is a good speech?  Is it effective?

Choose a 10-12-page article not including references .The article must come from an Academic journal. In your Article Review you should describe the content of the article chosen, identifying key ass Choose a 10-12-page article not including references .The article must come from an Academic journal.  In your Article Review you should describe the content of the article chosen, identifying key assumptions and conclusions of the authors and giving your opinion on them. Your analysis should lead to a justified conclusion: whether you will recommend this article to your colleagues and classmates or not and why. You also need to briefly assess relevance/applicability of the concepts of the article in both overall business settings and personal work settings. Requirements: ● Your Article Review should be no less than 1000 wordsusing APA. Show more

Choose a 10-12-page article not including references .The article must come from an Academic journal.  In your Article Review you should describe the content of the article chosen, identifying key ass                                                         Choose a 10-12-page article not including references .The article must come from an Academic journal.   In your Article Review you should describe the content of the article chosen, identifying key assumptions and conclusions of the authors and giving your opinion on them. Your analysis should lead to a justified conclusion: whether you will recommend this article to your colleagues and classmates or not and why. You also need to briefly assess relevance/applicability of the concepts of the article in both overall business settings and personal work settings.  Requirements:  ● Your Article Review should be no less than 1000 wordsusing APA.                                                    Show more

Choose a 10-12-page article not including references .The article must come from an Academic journal. 

In your Article Review you should describe the content of the article chosen, identifying key assumptions and conclusions of the authors and giving your opinion on them. Your analysis should lead to a justified conclusion: whether you will recommend this article to your colleagues and classmates or not and why. You also need to briefly assess relevance/applicability of the concepts of the article in both overall business settings and personal work settings.

Requirements:

● Your Article Review should be no less than 1000 wordsusing APA.

EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen. Some parts of this text may pro EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may promote ideas seem antediluvian to us today.  Read through the excerpt and answer the questions that follow. “Duties of American Citizenship” by Theodore Roosevelt Buffalo, New York, January 26, 1883 Of course, in one sense, the first essential for a man’s being a good citizen is his possession of the home virtues of which we think when we call a man by the emphatic adjective of manly. No man can be a good citizen who is not a good husband and a good father, who is not honest in his dealings with other men and women, faithful to his friends and fearless in the presence of his foes, who has not got a sound heart, a sound mind, and a sound body; exactly as no amount of attention to civil duties will save a nation if the domestic life is undermined, or there is lack of the rude military virtues which alone can assure a country’s position in the world. In a free republic the ideal citizen must be one willing and able to take arms for the defense of the flag, exactly as the ideal citizen must be the father of many healthy children. A race must be strong and vigorous; it must be a race of good fighters and good breeders, else its wisdom will come to naught and its virtue be ineffective; and no sweetness and delicacy, no love for and appreciation of beauty in art or literature, no capacity for building up material prosperity can possibly atone for the lack of the great virile virtues. But this is aside from my subject, for what I wish to talk of is the attitude of the American citizen in civic life. It ought to be axiomatic in this country that every man must devote a reasonable share of his time to doing his duty in the Political life of the community. No man has a right to shirk his political duties under whatever plea of pleasure or business; and while such shirking may be pardoned in those of small cleans it is entirely unpardonable in those among whom it is most common–in the people whose circumstances give them freedom in the struggle for life. In so far as the community grows to think rightly, it will likewise grow to regard the young man of means who shirks his duty to the State in time of peace as being only one degree worse than the man who thus shirks it in time of war. A great many of our men in business, or of our young men who are bent on enjoying life (as they have a perfect right to do if only they do not sacrifice other things to enjoyment), rather plume themselves upon being good citizens if they even vote; yet voting is the very least of their duties, Nothing worth gaining is ever gained without effort. You can no more have freedom without striving and suffering for it than you can win success as a banker or a lawyer without labor and effort, without self-denial in youth and the display of a ready and alert intelligence in middle age. The people who say that they have not time to attend to politics are simply saying that they are unfit to live in a free community. Their place is under a despotism; or if they are content to do nothing but vote, you can take despotism tempered by an occasional plebiscite, like that of the second Napoleon. In one of Lowell’s magnificent stanzas about the Civil War he speaks of the fact which his countrymen were then learning, that freedom is not a gift that tarries long in the hands of cowards: nor yet does it tarry long in the hands of the sluggard and the idler, in the hands of the man so much absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure or in the pursuit of gain, or so much wrapped up in his own easy home life as to be unable to take his part in the rough struggle with his fellow men for political supremacy. If freedom is worth having, if the right of self-government is a valuable right, then the one and the other must be retained exactly as our forefathers acquired them, by labor, and especially by labor in organization, that is in combination with our fellows who have the same interests and the same principles. We should not accept the excuse of the business man who attributed his failure to the fact that his social duties were so pleasant and engrossing that he had no time left for work in his office; nor would we pay much heed to his further statement that he did not like business anyhow because he thought the morals of the business community by no means what they should be, and saw that the great successes were most often won by men of the Jay Gould stamp. It is just the same way with politics. It makes one feel half angry and half amused, and wholly contemptuous, to find men of high business or social standing in the community saying that they really have not got time to go to ward meetings, to organize political clubs, and to take a personal share in all the important details of practical politics; men who further urge against their going the fact that they think the condition of political morality low, and are afraid that they may be required to do what is not right if they go into politics. The first duty of an American citizen, then, is that he shall work in politics; his second duty is that he shall do that work in a practical manner; and his third is that it shall be done in accord with the highest principles of honor and justice. Of course, it is not possible to define rigidly just the way in which the work shall be made practical. Each man’s individual temper and convictions must be taken into account. To a certain extent his work must be done in accordance with his individual beliefs and theories of right and wrong. To a yet greater extent it must be done in combination with others, he yielding or modifying certain of his own theories and beliefs so as to enable him to stand on a common ground with his fellows, who have likewise yielded or modified certain of their theories and beliefs. There is no need of dogmatizing about independence on the one hand or party allegiance on the other. There are occasions when it may be the highest duty of any man to act outside of parties and against the one with which he has himself been hitherto identified; and there may be many more occasions when his highest duty is to sacrifice some of his own cherished opinions for the sake of the success of the party which he on the whole believes to be right. I do not think that the average citizen, at least in one of our great cities, can very well manage to support his own party all the time on every issue, local and otherwise; at any rate if he can do so he has been more fortunately placed than I have been. On the other hand, I am fully convinced that to do the best work people must be organized; and of course an organization is really a party, whether it be a great organization covering the whole nation and numbering its millions of adherents, or an association of citizens in a particular locality, banded together to win a certain specific victory, as, for instance, that of municipal reform. Somebody has said that a racing-yacht, like a good rifle, is a bundle of incompatibilities; that you must get the utmost possible sail power without sacrificing some other quality if you really do get the utmost sail power, that, in short you have got to make more or less of a compromise on each in order to acquire the dozen things needful; but, of course, in making this compromise you must be very careful for the sake of something unimportant not to sacrifice any of the great principles of successful naval architecture. Well, it is about so with a man’s political work. He has got to preserve his independence on the one hand; and on the other, unless he wishes to be a wholly ineffective crank, he has got to have some sense of party allegiance and party responsibility, and he has got to realize that in any given exigency it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice one quality, or it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice the other. If it is difficult to lay down any fixed rules for party action in the abstract; it would, of course, be wholly impossible to lay them down for party action in the concrete, with reference to the organizations of the present day. I think that we ought to be broad-minded enough to recognize the fact that a good citizen, striving with fearlessness, honesty, and common sense to do his best for the nation, can render service to it in many different ways, and by connection with many different organizations. It is well for a man if he is able conscientiously to feel that his views on the great questions of the day, on such questions as the tariff, finance, immigration, the regulation of the liquor traffic, and others like them, are such as to put him in accord with the bulk of those of his fellow citizens who compose one of the greatest parties: but it is perfectly supposable that he may feel so strongly for or against certain principles held by one party, or certain principles held by the other, that he is unable to give his full adherence to either. In such a case I feel that he has no right to plead this lack of agreement with either party as an excuse for refraining from active political work prior to election. It will, of course, bar him from the primaries of the two leading parties, and preclude him from doing his share in organizing their management; but, unless he is very unfortunate, he can surely find a number of men who are in the same position as himself and who agree with him on some specific piece of political work, and they can turn in practically and effectively long before election to try to do this new piece of work in a practical manner. One seemingly very necessary caution to utter is, that a man who goes into politics should not expect to reform everything right off, with a jump. I know many excellent young men who, when awakened to the fact that they have neglected their political duties, feel an immediate impulse to form themselves into an organization which shall forthwith purify politics everywhere, national, State, and city alike; and I know of a man who having gone round once to a primary, and having, of course, been unable to accomplish anything in a place where he knew no one and could not combine with anyone, returned saying it was quite useless for a good citizen to try to accomplish anything in such a manner. To these too hopeful or too easily discouraged people I always feel like reading Artemus Ward’s article upon the people of his town who came together in a meeting to resolve that the town should support the Union and the Civil War, but were unwilling to take any part in putting down the rebellion unless they could go as brigadier-generals. After the battle of Bull Run there were a good many hundreds of thousands of young men in the North who felt it to be their duty to enter the Northern armies; but no one of them who possessed much intelligence expected to take high place at the outset, or anticipated that individual action would be of decisive importance in any given campaign. He went in as private or sergeant, lieutenant or captain, as the case might be, and did his duty in his company, in his regiment, after a while in his brigade. When Ball’s Bluff and Bull Run succeeded the utter failure of the Peninsular campaign, when the terrible defeat of Fredericksburg was followed by the scarcely less disastrous day at Chancellorsville he did not announce (if he had any pluck or manliness about him) that he considered it quite useless for any self-respecting citizen to enter the Army of the Potomac, because he really was not of much weight in its councils, and did not approve of its management; he simply gritted his teeth and went doggedly on with his duty, grieving over, but not disheartened at the innumerable shortcomings and follies committed by those who helped to guide the destinies of the army, recognizing also the bravery, the patience, intelligence, and resolution with which other men in high places offset the follies and shortcomings and persevering with equal mind through triumph and defeat until finally he saw the tide of failure turn at Gettysburg and the full flood of victory come with Appomattox. I do wish that more of our good citizens would go into politics, and would do it in the same spirit with which their fathers went into the Federal armies. Begin with the little thing, and do not expect to accomplish anything without an effort. Of course, if you go to a primary just once, never having taken the trouble to know any of the other people who go there you will find yourself wholly out of place; but if you keep on attending and try to form associations with other men whom you meet at the political gatherings, or whom you can persuade to attend them, you will very soon find yourself a weight. In the same way, if a man feels that the politics of his city, for instance, are very corrupt and wants to reform them, it would be an excellent idea for him to begin with his district. If he Joins with other people, who think as he does, to form a club where abstract political virtue will be discussed he may do a great deal of good. We need such clubs; but he must also get to know his own ward or his own district, put himself in communication with the decent people in that district, of whom we may rest assured there will be many, willing and able to do something practical for the procurance of better government Let him set to work to procure a better assemblyman or better alderman before he tries his hand at making a mayor, a governor, or a president. If he begins at the top he may make a brilliant temporary success, but the chances are a thousand to one that he will only be defeated eventually; and in no event will the good he does stand on the same broad and permanent foundation as if he had begun at the bottom. Of course, one or two of his efforts may be failures; but if he has the right stuff in him he will go ahead and do his duty irrespective of whether he meets with success or defeat. It is perfectly right to consider the question of failure while shaping one’s efforts to succeed in the struggle for the right; but there should be no consideration of it whatsoever when the question is as to whether one should or should not make a struggle for the right. When once a band of one hundred and fifty or two hundred honest, intelligent men, who mean business and know their business, is found in any district, whether in one of the regular organizations or outside, you can guarantee that the local politicians of that district will begin to treat it with a combination of fear, hatred, and respect, and that its influence will be felt; and that while sometimes men will be elected to office in direct defiance of its wishes, more often the successful candidates will feel that they have to pay some regard to its demands for public decency and honesty. “Duties of American Citizenship” – Questions (Please answer on a separate piece of paper and submit it through Blackboard) 1.  Are you able to identify any idiomatic collocations in this speech?  What purpose do they serve?  Are they effective? 2.  As I mentioned in the introduction, some idea promoted in this speech may seem outdated.  Can you identify anything that doesn’t seem to fit with modern life?  Anything that seems inappropriate? 3.  Although this is an excerpt and not the entire speech, go through the part given here a outline the basic ideas.  The outline should be organized by paragraph in the following fashion: Paragraph 1:             Idea 1             Example             Point             Idea 2 Paragraph 2: 4.  In your own words, summarize the speech.  What is he saying?  How is he saying it? 5.  Do you think this is a good speech?  Is it effective? Show more

EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes   Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may pro                                                         EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes  Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may promote ideas seem antediluvian to us today.  Read through the excerpt and answer the questions that follow.  “Duties of American Citizenship” by Theodore Roosevelt  Buffalo, New York, January 26, 1883  Of course, in one sense, the first essential for a man’s being a good citizen is his possession of the home virtues of which we think when we call a man by the emphatic adjective of manly. No man can be a good citizen who is not a good husband and a good father, who is not honest in his dealings with other men and women, faithful to his friends and fearless in the presence of his foes, who has not got a sound heart, a sound mind, and a sound body; exactly as no amount of attention to civil duties will save a nation if the domestic life is undermined, or there is lack of the rude military virtues which alone can assure a country’s position in the world. In a free republic the ideal citizen must be one willing and able to take arms for the defense of the flag, exactly as the ideal citizen must be the father of many healthy children. A race must be strong and vigorous; it must be a race of good fighters and good breeders, else its wisdom will come to naught and its virtue be ineffective; and no sweetness and delicacy, no love for and appreciation of beauty in art or literature, no capacity for building up material prosperity can possibly atone for the lack of the great virile virtues.  But this is aside from my subject, for what I wish to talk of is the attitude of the American citizen in civic life. It ought to be axiomatic in this country that every man must devote a reasonable share of his time to doing his duty in the Political life of the community. No man has a right to shirk his political duties under whatever plea of pleasure or business; and while such shirking may be pardoned in those of small cleans it is entirely unpardonable in those among whom it is most common–in the people whose circumstances give them freedom in the struggle for life. In so far as the community grows to think rightly, it will likewise grow to regard the young man of means who shirks his duty to the State in time of peace as being only one degree worse than the man who thus shirks it in time of war. A great many of our men in business, or of our young men who are bent on enjoying life (as they have a perfect right to do if only they do not sacrifice other things to enjoyment), rather plume themselves upon being good citizens if they even vote; yet voting is the very least of their duties, Nothing worth gaining is ever gained without effort. You can no more have freedom without striving and suffering for it than you can win success as a banker or a lawyer without labor and effort, without self-denial in youth and the display of a ready and alert intelligence in middle age. The people who say that they have not time to attend to politics are simply saying that they are unfit to live in a free community. Their place is under a despotism; or if they are content to do nothing but vote, you can take despotism tempered by an occasional plebiscite, like that of the second Napoleon. In one of Lowell’s magnificent stanzas about the Civil War he speaks of the fact which his countrymen were then learning, that freedom is not a gift that tarries long in the hands of cowards: nor yet does it tarry long in the hands of the sluggard and the idler, in the hands of the man so much absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure or in the pursuit of gain, or so much wrapped up in his own easy home life as to be unable to take his part in the rough struggle with his fellow men for political supremacy. If freedom is worth having, if the right of self-government is a valuable right, then the one and the other must be retained exactly as our forefathers acquired them, by labor, and especially by labor in organization, that is in combination with our fellows who have the same interests and the same principles. We should not accept the excuse of the business man who attributed his failure to the fact that his social duties were so pleasant and engrossing that he had no time left for work in his office; nor would we pay much heed to his further statement that he did not like business anyhow because he thought the morals of the business community by no means what they should be, and saw that the great successes were most often won by men of the Jay Gould stamp. It is just the same way with politics. It makes one feel half angry and half amused, and wholly contemptuous, to find men of high business or social standing in the community saying that they really have not got time to go to ward meetings, to organize political clubs, and to take a personal share in all the important details of practical politics; men who further urge against their going the fact that they think the condition of political morality low, and are afraid that they may be required to do what is not right if they go into politics.  The first duty of an American citizen, then, is that he shall work in politics; his second duty is that he shall do that work in a practical manner; and his third is that it shall be done in accord with the highest principles of honor and justice. Of course, it is not possible to define rigidly just the way in which the work shall be made practical. Each man’s individual temper and convictions must be taken into account. To a certain extent his work must be done in accordance with his individual beliefs and theories of right and wrong. To a yet greater extent it must be done in combination with others, he yielding or modifying certain of his own theories and beliefs so as to enable him to stand on a common ground with his fellows, who have likewise yielded or modified certain of their theories and beliefs. There is no need of dogmatizing about independence on the one hand or party allegiance on the other. There are occasions when it may be the highest duty of any man to act outside of parties and against the one with which he has himself been hitherto identified; and there may be many more occasions when his highest duty is to sacrifice some of his own cherished opinions for the sake of the success of the party which he on the whole believes to be right. I do not think that the average citizen, at least in one of our great cities, can very well manage to support his own party all the time on every issue, local and otherwise; at any rate if he can do so he has been more fortunately placed than I have been. On the other hand, I am fully convinced that to do the best work people must be organized; and of course an organization is really a party, whether it be a great organization covering the whole nation and numbering its millions of adherents, or an association of citizens in a particular locality, banded together to win a certain specific victory, as, for instance, that of municipal reform. Somebody has said that a racing-yacht, like a good rifle, is a bundle of incompatibilities; that you must get the utmost possible sail power without sacrificing some other quality if you really do get the utmost sail power, that, in short you have got to make more or less of a compromise on each in order to acquire the dozen things needful; but, of course, in making this compromise you must be very careful for the sake of something unimportant not to sacrifice any of the great principles of successful naval architecture. Well, it is about so with a man’s political work. He has got to preserve his independence on the one hand; and on the other, unless he wishes to be a wholly ineffective crank, he has got to have some sense of party allegiance and party responsibility, and he has got to realize that in any given exigency it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice one quality, or it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice the other.  If it is difficult to lay down any fixed rules for party action in the abstract; it would, of course, be wholly impossible to lay them down for party action in the concrete, with reference to the organizations of the present day. I think that we ought to be broad-minded enough to recognize the fact that a good citizen, striving with fearlessness, honesty, and common sense to do his best for the nation, can render service to it in many different ways, and by connection with many different organizations. It is well for a man if he is able conscientiously to feel that his views on the great questions of the day, on such questions as the tariff, finance, immigration, the regulation of the liquor traffic, and others like them, are such as to put him in accord with the bulk of those of his fellow citizens who compose one of the greatest parties: but it is perfectly supposable that he may feel so strongly for or against certain principles held by one party, or certain principles held by the other, that he is unable to give his full adherence to either. In such a case I feel that he has no right to plead this lack of agreement with either party as an excuse for refraining from active political work prior to election. It will, of course, bar him from the primaries of the two leading parties, and preclude him from doing his share in organizing their management; but, unless he is very unfortunate, he can surely find a number of men who are in the same position as himself and who agree with him on some specific piece of political work, and they can turn in practically and effectively long before election to try to do this new piece of work in a practical manner.  One seemingly very necessary caution to utter is, that a man who goes into politics should not expect to reform everything right off, with a jump. I know many excellent young men who, when awakened to the fact that they have neglected their political duties, feel an immediate impulse to form themselves into an organization which shall forthwith purify politics everywhere, national, State, and city alike; and I know of a man who having gone round once to a primary, and having, of course, been unable to accomplish anything in a place where he knew no one and could not combine with anyone, returned saying it was quite useless for a good citizen to try to accomplish anything in such a manner. To these too hopeful or too easily discouraged people I always feel like reading Artemus Ward’s article upon the people of his town who came together in a meeting to resolve that the town should support the Union and the Civil War, but were unwilling to take any part in putting down the rebellion unless they could go as brigadier-generals. After the battle of Bull Run there were a good many hundreds of thousands of young men in the North who felt it to be their duty to enter the Northern armies; but no one of them who possessed much intelligence expected to take high place at the outset, or anticipated that individual action would be of decisive importance in any given campaign. He went in as private or sergeant, lieutenant or captain, as the case might be, and did his duty in his company, in his regiment, after a while in his brigade. When Ball’s Bluff and Bull Run succeeded the utter failure of the Peninsular campaign, when the terrible defeat of Fredericksburg was followed by the scarcely less disastrous day at Chancellorsville he did not announce (if he had any pluck or manliness about him) that he considered it quite useless for any self-respecting citizen to enter the Army of the Potomac, because he really was not of much weight in its councils, and did not approve of its management; he simply gritted his teeth and went doggedly on with his duty, grieving over, but not disheartened at the innumerable shortcomings and follies committed by those who helped to guide the destinies of the army, recognizing also the bravery, the patience, intelligence, and resolution with which other men in high places offset the follies and shortcomings and persevering with equal mind through triumph and defeat until finally he saw the tide of failure turn at Gettysburg and the full flood of victory come with Appomattox.  I do wish that more of our good citizens would go into politics, and would do it in the same spirit with which their fathers went into the Federal armies. Begin with the little thing, and do not expect to accomplish anything without an effort. Of course, if you go to a primary just once, never having taken the trouble to know any of the other people who go there you will find yourself wholly out of place; but if you keep on attending and try to form associations with other men whom you meet at the political gatherings, or whom you can persuade to attend them, you will very soon find yourself a weight. In the same way, if a man feels that the politics of his city, for instance, are very corrupt and wants to reform them, it would be an excellent idea for him to begin with his district. If he Joins with other people, who think as he does, to form a club where abstract political virtue will be discussed he may do a great deal of good. We need such clubs; but he must also get to know his own ward or his own district, put himself in communication with the decent people in that district, of whom we may rest assured there will be many, willing and able to do something practical for the procurance of better government Let him set to work to procure a better assemblyman or better alderman before he tries his hand at making a mayor, a governor, or a president. If he begins at the top he may make a brilliant temporary success, but the chances are a thousand to one that he will only be defeated eventually; and in no event will the good he does stand on the same broad and permanent foundation as if he had begun at the bottom. Of course, one or two of his efforts may be failures; but if he has the right stuff in him he will go ahead and do his duty irrespective of whether he meets with success or defeat. It is perfectly right to consider the question of failure while shaping one’s efforts to succeed in the struggle for the right; but there should be no consideration of it whatsoever when the question is as to whether one should or should not make a struggle for the right. When once a band of one hundred and fifty or two hundred honest, intelligent men, who mean business and know their business, is found in any district, whether in one of the regular organizations or outside, you can guarantee that the local politicians of that district will begin to treat it with a combination of fear, hatred, and respect, and that its influence will be felt; and that while sometimes men will be elected to office in direct defiance of its wishes, more often the successful candidates will feel that they have to pay some regard to its demands for public decency and honesty.  “Duties of American Citizenship” – Questions (Please answer on a separate piece of paper and submit it through Blackboard)  1.  Are you able to identify any idiomatic collocations in this speech?  What purpose do they serve?  Are they effective?  2.  As I mentioned in the introduction, some idea promoted in this speech may seem outdated.  Can you identify anything that doesn’t seem to fit with modern life?  Anything that seems inappropriate?  3.  Although this is an excerpt and not the entire speech, go through the part given here a outline the basic ideas.  The outline should be organized by paragraph in the following fashion:  Paragraph 1:              Idea 1              Example              Point              Idea 2  Paragraph 2:  4.  In your own words, summarize the speech.  What is he saying?  How is he saying it?  5.  Do you think this is a good speech?  Is it effective?                                                    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EAP 500 – English for Academic Purposes

Below is an excerpt from a speech by a former US president, Theodore Roosevelt about what it means to be an American citizen.  Some parts of this text may promote ideas seem antediluvian to us today.  Read through the excerpt and answer the questions that follow.

“Duties of American Citizenship” by Theodore Roosevelt

Buffalo, New York, January 26, 1883

Of course, in one sense, the first essential for a man’s being a good citizen is his possession of the home virtues of which we think when we call a man by the emphatic adjective of manly. No man can be a good citizen who is not a good husband and a good father, who is not honest in his dealings with other men and women, faithful to his friends and fearless in the presence of his foes, who has not got a sound heart, a sound mind, and a sound body; exactly as no amount of attention to civil duties will save a nation if the domestic life is undermined, or there is lack of the rude military virtues which alone can assure a country’s position in the world. In a free republic the ideal citizen must be one willing and able to take arms for the defense of the flag, exactly as the ideal citizen must be the father of many healthy children. A race must be strong and vigorous; it must be a race of good fighters and good breeders, else its wisdom will come to naught and its virtue be ineffective; and no sweetness and delicacy, no love for and appreciation of beauty in art or literature, no capacity for building up material prosperity can possibly atone for the lack of the great virile virtues.

But this is aside from my subject, for what I wish to talk of is the attitude of the American citizen in civic life. It ought to be axiomatic in this country that every man must devote a reasonable share of his time to doing his duty in the Political life of the community. No man has a right to shirk his political duties under whatever plea of pleasure or business; and while such shirking may be pardoned in those of small cleans it is entirely unpardonable in those among whom it is most common–in the people whose circumstances give them freedom in the struggle for life. In so far as the community grows to think rightly, it will likewise grow to regard the young man of means who shirks his duty to the State in time of peace as being only one degree worse than the man who thus shirks it in time of war. A great many of our men in business, or of our young men who are bent on enjoying life (as they have a perfect right to do if only they do not sacrifice other things to enjoyment), rather plume themselves upon being good citizens if they even vote; yet voting is the very least of their duties, Nothing worth gaining is ever gained without effort. You can no more have freedom without striving and suffering for it than you can win success as a banker or a lawyer without labor and effort, without self-denial in youth and the display of a ready and alert intelligence in middle age. The people who say that they have not time to attend to politics are simply saying that they are unfit to live in a free community. Their place is under a despotism; or if they are content to do nothing but vote, you can take despotism tempered by an occasional plebiscite, like that of the second Napoleon. In one of Lowell’s magnificent stanzas about the Civil War he speaks of the fact which his countrymen were then learning, that freedom is not a gift that tarries long in the hands of cowards: nor yet does it tarry long in the hands of the sluggard and the idler, in the hands of the man so much absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure or in the pursuit of gain, or so much wrapped up in his own easy home life as to be unable to take his part in the rough struggle with his fellow men for political supremacy. If freedom is worth having, if the right of self-government is a valuable right, then the one and the other must be retained exactly as our forefathers acquired them, by labor, and especially by labor in organization, that is in combination with our fellows who have the same interests and the same principles. We should not accept the excuse of the business man who attributed his failure to the fact that his social duties were so pleasant and engrossing that he had no time left for work in his office; nor would we pay much heed to his further statement that he did not like business anyhow because he thought the morals of the business community by no means what they should be, and saw that the great successes were most often won by men of the Jay Gould stamp. It is just the same way with politics. It makes one feel half angry and half amused, and wholly contemptuous, to find men of high business or social standing in the community saying that they really have not got time to go to ward meetings, to organize political clubs, and to take a personal share in all the important details of practical politics; men who further urge against their going the fact that they think the condition of political morality low, and are afraid that they may be required to do what is not right if they go into politics.

The first duty of an American citizen, then, is that he shall work in politics; his second duty is that he shall do that work in a practical manner; and his third is that it shall be done in accord with the highest principles of honor and justice. Of course, it is not possible to define rigidly just the way in which the work shall be made practical. Each man’s individual temper and convictions must be taken into account. To a certain extent his work must be done in accordance with his individual beliefs and theories of right and wrong. To a yet greater extent it must be done in combination with others, he yielding or modifying certain of his own theories and beliefs so as to enable him to stand on a common ground with his fellows, who have likewise yielded or modified certain of their theories and beliefs. There is no need of dogmatizing about independence on the one hand or party allegiance on the other. There are occasions when it may be the highest duty of any man to act outside of parties and against the one with which he has himself been hitherto identified; and there may be many more occasions when his highest duty is to sacrifice some of his own cherished opinions for the sake of the success of the party which he on the whole believes to be right. I do not think that the average citizen, at least in one of our great cities, can very well manage to support his own party all the time on every issue, local and otherwise; at any rate if he can do so he has been more fortunately placed than I have been. On the other hand, I am fully convinced that to do the best work people must be organized; and of course an organization is really a party, whether it be a great organization covering the whole nation and numbering its millions of adherents, or an association of citizens in a particular locality, banded together to win a certain specific victory, as, for instance, that of municipal reform. Somebody has said that a racing-yacht, like a good rifle, is a bundle of incompatibilities; that you must get the utmost possible sail power without sacrificing some other quality if you really do get the utmost sail power, that, in short you have got to make more or less of a compromise on each in order to acquire the dozen things needful; but, of course, in making this compromise you must be very careful for the sake of something unimportant not to sacrifice any of the great principles of successful naval architecture. Well, it is about so with a man’s political work. He has got to preserve his independence on the one hand; and on the other, unless he wishes to be a wholly ineffective crank, he has got to have some sense of party allegiance and party responsibility, and he has got to realize that in any given exigency it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice one quality, or it may be a matter of duty to sacrifice the other.

If it is difficult to lay down any fixed rules for party action in the abstract; it would, of course, be wholly impossible to lay them down for party action in the concrete, with reference to the organizations of the present day. I think that we ought to be broad-minded enough to recognize the fact that a good citizen, striving with fearlessness, honesty, and common sense to do his best for the nation, can render service to it in many different ways, and by connection with many different organizations. It is well for a man if he is able conscientiously to feel that his views on the great questions of the day, on such questions as the tariff, finance, immigration, the regulation of the liquor traffic, and others like them, are such as to put him in accord with the bulk of those of his fellow citizens who compose one of the greatest parties: but it is perfectly supposable that he may feel so strongly for or against certain principles held by one party, or certain principles held by the other, that he is unable to give his full adherence to either. In such a case I feel that he has no right to plead this lack of agreement with either party as an excuse for refraining from active political work prior to election. It will, of course, bar him from the primaries of the two leading parties, and preclude him from doing his share in organizing their management; but, unless he is very unfortunate, he can surely find a number of men who are in the same position as himself and who agree with him on some specific piece of political work, and they can turn in practically and effectively long before election to try to do this new piece of work in a practical manner.

One seemingly very necessary caution to utter is, that a man who goes into politics should not expect to reform everything right off, with a jump. I know many excellent young men who, when awakened to the fact that they have neglected their political duties, feel an immediate impulse to form themselves into an organization which shall forthwith purify politics everywhere, national, State, and city alike; and I know of a man who having gone round once to a primary, and having, of course, been unable to accomplish anything in a place where he knew no one and could not combine with anyone, returned saying it was quite useless for a good citizen to try to accomplish anything in such a manner. To these too hopeful or too easily discouraged people I always feel like reading Artemus Ward’s article upon the people of his town who came together in a meeting to resolve that the town should support the Union and the Civil War, but were unwilling to take any part in putting down the rebellion unless they could go as brigadier-generals. After the battle of Bull Run there were a good many hundreds of thousands of young men in the North who felt it to be their duty to enter the Northern armies; but no one of them who possessed much intelligence expected to take high place at the outset, or anticipated that individual action would be of decisive importance in any given campaign. He went in as private or sergeant, lieutenant or captain, as the case might be, and did his duty in his company, in his regiment, after a while in his brigade. When Ball’s Bluff and Bull Run succeeded the utter failure of the Peninsular campaign, when the terrible defeat of Fredericksburg was followed by the scarcely less disastrous day at Chancellorsville he did not announce (if he had any pluck or manliness about him) that he considered it quite useless for any self-respecting citizen to enter the Army of the Potomac, because he really was not of much weight in its councils, and did not approve of its management; he simply gritted his teeth and went doggedly on with his duty, grieving over, but not disheartened at the innumerable shortcomings and follies committed by those who helped to guide the destinies of the army, recognizing also the bravery, the patience, intelligence, and resolution with which other men in high places offset the follies and shortcomings and persevering with equal mind through triumph and defeat until finally he saw the tide of failure turn at Gettysburg and the full flood of victory come with Appomattox.

I do wish that more of our good citizens would go into politics, and would do it in the same spirit with which their fathers went into the Federal armies. Begin with the little thing, and do not expect to accomplish anything without an effort. Of course, if you go to a primary just once, never having taken the trouble to know any of the other people who go there you will find yourself wholly out of place; but if you keep on attending and try to form associations with other men whom you meet at the political gatherings, or whom you can persuade to attend them, you will very soon find yourself a weight. In the same way, if a man feels that the politics of his city, for instance, are very corrupt and wants to reform them, it would be an excellent idea for him to begin with his district. If he Joins with other people, who think as he does, to form a club where abstract political virtue will be discussed he may do a great deal of good. We need such clubs; but he must also get to know his own ward or his own district, put himself in communication with the decent people in that district, of whom we may rest assured there will be many, willing and able to do something practical for the procurance of better government Let him set to work to procure a better assemblyman or better alderman before he tries his hand at making a mayor, a governor, or a president. If he begins at the top he may make a brilliant temporary success, but the chances are a thousand to one that he will only be defeated eventually; and in no event will the good he does stand on the same broad and permanent foundation as if he had begun at the bottom. Of course, one or two of his efforts may be failures; but if he has the right stuff in him he will go ahead and do his duty irrespective of whether he meets with success or defeat. It is perfectly right to consider the question of failure while shaping one’s efforts to succeed in the struggle for the right; but there should be no consideration of it whatsoever when the question is as to whether one should or should not make a struggle for the right. When once a band of one hundred and fifty or two hundred honest, intelligent men, who mean business and know their business, is found in any district, whether in one of the regular organizations or outside, you can guarantee that the local politicians of that district will begin to treat it with a combination of fear, hatred, and respect, and that its influence will be felt; and that while sometimes men will be elected to office in direct defiance of its wishes, more often the successful candidates will feel that they have to pay some regard to its demands for public decency and honesty.

“Duties of American Citizenship” – Questions (Please answer on a separate piece of paper and submit it through Blackboard)

1.  Are you able to identify any idiomatic collocations in this speech?  What purpose do they serve?  Are they effective?

2.  As I mentioned in the introduction, some idea promoted in this speech may seem outdated.  Can you identify anything that doesn’t seem to fit with modern life?  Anything that seems inappropriate?

3.  Although this is an excerpt and not the entire speech, go through the part given here a outline the basic ideas.  The outline should be organized by paragraph in the following fashion:

Paragraph 1:

            Idea 1

            Example

            Point

            Idea 2

Paragraph 2:

4.  In your own words, summarize the speech.  What is he saying?  How is he saying it?

5.  Do you think this is a good speech?  Is it effective?

POL: Analysis of Poem “To An Athlete Dying Young”To an Athlete Dying YoungBy A. E. Housman The time you won your town the race We chaired you through the market-place; Man and boy stood cheering by, A POL: Analysis of Poem “To An Athlete Dying Young”To an Athlete Dying YoungBy A. E. Housman The time you won your town the race We chaired you through the market-place; Man and boy stood cheering by, And home we brought you shoulder-high. Today, the road all runners come, Shoulder-high we bring you home, And set you at your threshold down, Townsman of a stiller town. Smart lad, to slip betimes away From fields where glory does not stay, And early though the laurel grows It withers quicker than the rose. Eyes the shady night has shut Cannot see the record cut, And silence sounds no worse than cheers After earth has stopped the ears. Now you will not swell the rout Of lads that wore their honours out, Runners whom renown outran And the name died before the man. So set, before its echoes fade, The fleet foot on the sill of shade, And hold to the low lintel up The still-defended challenge-cup. And round that early-laurelled head Will flock to gaze the strengthless dead, And find unwithered on its curls The garland briefer than a girl’s. Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk. Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5) Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses. Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5) Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category. Visual Auditory Gustatory Tactile Olfactory Poetry Exploration: Title (5) For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line.  For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about. For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem.  Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)  Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.   Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.  Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem? Speaker: How I know:  Situation: Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5) Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say.  Word Definition Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10) Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk. Chunk Word  Your Extended Definition 7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5) Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk.  Your Poem Chunk by Chunk Your Summary or Paraphrase of the Chunk 8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5) Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language.   On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.  In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.  In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what.  In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison. POEM CHUNK METAPHOR UMBRELLA WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5) Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category.  Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem The tone you will use in delivery of chunk Show more

POL: Analysis of Poem “To An Athlete Dying Young”To an Athlete Dying YoungBy A. E. Housman The time you won your town the race We chaired you through the market-place; Man and boy stood cheering by, A                                                         POL: Analysis of Poem “To An Athlete Dying Young”To an Athlete Dying YoungBy A. E. Housman  The time you won your town the race  We chaired you through the market-place;  Man and boy stood cheering by,  And home we brought you shoulder-high.  Today, the road all runners come,  Shoulder-high we bring you home,  And set you at your threshold down,  Townsman of a stiller town.  Smart lad, to slip betimes away  From fields where glory does not stay,  And early though the laurel grows  It withers quicker than the rose.  Eyes the shady night has shut  Cannot see the record cut,  And silence sounds no worse than cheers  After earth has stopped the ears.  Now you will not swell the rout  Of lads that wore their honours out,  Runners whom renown outran  And the name died before the man.  So set, before its echoes fade,  The fleet foot on the sill of shade,  And hold to the low lintel up  The still-defended challenge-cup.  And round that early-laurelled head  Will flock to gaze the strengthless dead,  And find unwithered on its curls  The garland briefer than a girl’s.  Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk.  Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5)  Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses.  Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5)  Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category.  Visual  Auditory  Gustatory  Tactile  Olfactory  Poetry Exploration: Title (5)  For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line.   For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about.  For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem.   Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)   Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.    Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.   Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem?  Speaker:  How I know:   Situation:  Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5)  Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say.   Word  Definition  Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10)  Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk.  Chunk  Word   Your Extended Definition  7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5)  Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk.   Your Poem Chunk by Chunk  Your Summary or Paraphrase of the Chunk  8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5)  Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language.    On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.   In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.   In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what.   In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison.  POEM CHUNK  METAPHOR UMBRELLA  WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT  SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON  POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5)  Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category.   Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem  The tone you will use in delivery of chunk                                                    Show more

POL: Analysis of Poem “To An Athlete Dying Young”To an Athlete Dying YoungBy A. E. Housman

The time you won your town the race

We chaired you through the market-place;

Man and boy stood cheering by,

And home we brought you shoulder-high.

Today, the road all runners come,

Shoulder-high we bring you home,

And set you at your threshold down,

Townsman of a stiller town.

Smart lad, to slip betimes away

From fields where glory does not stay,

And early though the laurel grows

It withers quicker than the rose.

Eyes the shady night has shut

Cannot see the record cut,

And silence sounds no worse than cheers

After earth has stopped the ears.

Now you will not swell the rout

Of lads that wore their honours out,

Runners whom renown outran

And the name died before the man.

So set, before its echoes fade,

The fleet foot on the sill of shade,

And hold to the low lintel up

The still-defended challenge-cup.

And round that early-laurelled head

Will flock to gaze the strengthless dead,

And find unwithered on its curls

The garland briefer than a girl’s.

Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk.

Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5)

Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses.

Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5)

Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category.

Visual

Auditory

Gustatory

Tactile

Olfactory

Poetry Exploration: Title (5)

For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line. 

For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about.

For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem. 

Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)

 Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.  

Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.

 Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem?

Speaker:

How I know: 

Situation:

Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5)

Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say. 

Word

Definition

Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10)

Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk.

Chunk

Word 

Your Extended Definition

7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5)

Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk. 

Your Poem Chunk by Chunk

Your Summary or Paraphrase of the Chunk

8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5)

Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language. 

 On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.

 In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.

 In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what. 

In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison.

POEM CHUNK

METAPHOR UMBRELLA

WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT

SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON

POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5)

Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category. 

Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem

The tone you will use in delivery of chunk

POL: Analysis of Poem for “Dream Song 14” Dream Song 14 By John Berryman Life, friends, is boring. We must not say so. After all, the sky flashes, the great sea yearns, we ourselves flash and ye POL: Analysis of Poem for “Dream Song 14” Dream Song 14 By John Berryman Life, friends, is boring. We must not say so.    After all, the sky flashes, the great sea yearns,    we ourselves flash and yearn, and moreover my mother told me as a boy    (repeatingly) ‘Ever to confess you’re bored    means you have no Inner Resources.’ I conclude now I have no    inner resources, because I am heavy bored. Peoples bore me, literature bores me, especially great literature,    Henry bores me, with his plights & gripes    as bad as achilles, who loves people and valiant art, which bores me.    And the tranquil hills, & gin, look like a drag    and somehow a dog has taken itself & its tail considerably away into mountains or sea or sky, leaving             behind: me, wag. Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk. Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5) Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses. Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5) Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category. Visual Auditory Gustatory Tactile Olfactory Poetry Exploration: Title (5) For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line.  For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about. For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem.  Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)  Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.   Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.  Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem? Speaker: How I know:  Situation: Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5) Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say.  Word Definition Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10) Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk. Chunk Word  Your Extended Definition 7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5) Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk.  Your Poem Chunk by Chunk Your Summary or Paraphrase of the Chunk 8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5) Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language.   On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.  In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.  In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what.  In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison. POEM CHUNK METAPHOR UMBRELLA WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5) Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category.  Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem The tone you will use in delivery of chunk Show more

POL: Analysis of Poem for “Dream Song 14” Dream Song 14 By John Berryman Life, friends, is boring. We must not say so.    After all, the sky flashes, the great sea yearns,    we ourselves flash and ye                                                         POL: Analysis of Poem for “Dream Song 14”  Dream Song 14  By John Berryman  Life, friends, is boring. We must not say so.     After all, the sky flashes, the great sea yearns,     we ourselves flash and yearn,  and moreover my mother told me as a boy     (repeatingly) ‘Ever to confess you’re bored     means you have no  Inner Resources.’ I conclude now I have no     inner resources, because I am heavy bored.  Peoples bore me,  literature bores me, especially great literature,     Henry bores me, with his plights & gripes     as bad as achilles,  who loves people and valiant art, which bores me.     And the tranquil hills, & gin, look like a drag     and somehow a dog  has taken itself & its tail considerably away  into mountains or sea or sky, leaving              behind: me, wag.  Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk.  Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5)  Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses.  Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5)  Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category.  Visual  Auditory  Gustatory  Tactile  Olfactory  Poetry Exploration: Title (5)  For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line.   For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about.  For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem.   Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)   Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.    Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.   Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem?  Speaker:  How I know:   Situation:  Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5)  Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say.   Word  Definition  Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10)  Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk.  Chunk  Word   Your Extended Definition  7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5)  Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk.   Your Poem Chunk by Chunk  Your Summary or Paraphrase of the Chunk  8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5)  Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language.    On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.   In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.   In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what.   In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison.  POEM CHUNK  METAPHOR UMBRELLA  WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT  SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON  POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5)  Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category.   Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem  The tone you will use in delivery of chunk                                                    Show more

POL: Analysis of Poem for “Dream Song 14”

Dream Song 14

By John Berryman

Life, friends, is boring. We must not say so.   

After all, the sky flashes, the great sea yearns,   

we ourselves flash and yearn,

and moreover my mother told me as a boy   

(repeatingly) ‘Ever to confess you’re bored   

means you have no

Inner Resources.’ I conclude now I have no   

inner resources, because I am heavy bored.

Peoples bore me,

literature bores me, especially great literature,   

Henry bores me, with his plights & gripes   

as bad as achilles,

who loves people and valiant art, which bores me.   

And the tranquil hills, & gin, look like a drag   

and somehow a dog

has taken itself & its tail considerably away

into mountains or sea or sky, leaving            

behind: me, wag.

Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk.

Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5)

Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses.

Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5)

Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category.

Visual

Auditory

Gustatory

Tactile

Olfactory

Poetry Exploration: Title (5)

For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line. 

For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about.

For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem. 

Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)

 Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.  

Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.

 Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem?

Speaker:

How I know: 

Situation:

Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5)

Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say. 

Word

Definition

Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10)

Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk.

Chunk

Word 

Your Extended Definition

7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5)

Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk. 

Your Poem Chunk by Chunk

Your Summary or Paraphrase of the Chunk

8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5)

Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language. 

 On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.

 In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.

 In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what. 

In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison.

POEM CHUNK

METAPHOR UMBRELLA

WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT

SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON

POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5)

Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category. 

Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem

The tone you will use in delivery of chunk

POL: Analysis of Poem Dulce et Decorum Est Launch Audio in a New Window BY WILFRED OWEN Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on POL: Analysis of Poem  Dulce et Decorum Est  Launch Audio in a New Window BY WILFRED OWEN Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs, And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots, But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of gas-shells dropping softly behind. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time, But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime.— Dim through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,— My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori. Notes: Latin phrase is from the Roman poet Horace: “It is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country.” Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk. 1. Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5) Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses. 2. Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5) Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category. 7 choices in each one Visual Auditory Gustatory Tactile Olfactory 3. Poetry Exploration: Title (5) For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line.  For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about. For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem.  4.Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)  Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.   Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.  Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem? Speaker: How I know:  Situation: 5. Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5) Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say.  6. Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10) Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk. 7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5) Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk.  8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5) Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language.   On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.  In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.  In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what.  In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison. POEM CHUNK METAPHOR UMBRELLA WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5) Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category.  Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem The tone you will use in delivery of chunk Show more

POL: Analysis of Poem  Dulce et Decorum Est  Launch Audio in a New Window BY WILFRED OWEN Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on                                                         POL: Analysis of Poem   Dulce et Decorum Est   Launch Audio in a New Window  BY WILFRED OWEN  Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,  Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,  Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs,  And towards our distant rest began to trudge.  Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots,  But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;  Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots  Of gas-shells dropping softly behind.  Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling  Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time,  But someone still was yelling out and stumbling  And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime.—  Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,  As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.  In all my dreams before my helpless sight,  He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.  If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace  Behind the wagon that we flung him in,  And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,  His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;  If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood  Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,  Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud  Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,—  My friend, you would not tell with such high zest  To children ardent for some desperate glory,  The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est  Pro patria mori.  Notes:  Latin phrase is from the Roman poet Horace: “It is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country.”  Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk.  1. Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5)  Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses.  2. Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5)  Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category. 7 choices in each one  Visual  Auditory  Gustatory  Tactile  Olfactory  3. Poetry Exploration: Title (5)  For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line.   For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about.  For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem.   4.Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)   Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.    Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.   Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem?  Speaker:  How I know:   Situation:  5. Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5)  Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say.   6. Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10)  Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk.  7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5)  Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk.   8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5)  Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language.    On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.   In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.   In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what.   In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison.  POEM CHUNK  METAPHOR UMBRELLA  WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT  SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON  POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5)  Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category.   Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem  The tone you will use in delivery of chunk                                                    Show more

POL: Analysis of Poem 

Dulce et Decorum Est 

Launch Audio in a New Window

BY WILFRED OWEN

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,

Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,

Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs,

And towards our distant rest began to trudge.

Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots,

But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;

Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots

Of gas-shells dropping softly behind.

Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling

Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time,

But someone still was yelling out and stumbling

And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime.—

Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,

As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.

In all my dreams before my helpless sight,

He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace

Behind the wagon that we flung him in,

And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,

His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;

If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood

Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,

Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud

Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,—

My friend, you would not tell with such high zest

To children ardent for some desperate glory,

The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est

Pro patria mori.

Notes:

Latin phrase is from the Roman poet Horace: “It is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country.”

Directions: When you are asked to provide the chunks of your poem, make sure you provide all of them. For the purpose of this activity, do not use more than four lines for a chunk.

1. Poetry Exploration: Syntax (5)

Directions: Take the poem you are memorizing for POL and divide it by chunks using syntax. Type / copy each chunk on a line. Pay particular attention to where punctuation is, so as to pause appropriately. Re-write your poem based on those chunks/pauses.

2. Poetry Exploration: Imagery (5)

Directions: Identify every image in your poem. Write the phrase in the appropriate category. 7 choices in each one

Visual

Auditory

Gustatory

Tactile

Olfactory

3. Poetry Exploration: Title (5)

For #1 indicate the prediction you made with the title. If your poem is a sonnet which uses the first line as the little, work with the first line. 

For #2, indicate what the poem actually ended up being about.

For #3, explain why the title is appropriate for the poem. 

4.Poetry Exploration: Speaker/Situation  (5)

 Explain in a sentence who the speaker of the poem is.  

Next, pull some line/phrase/idea from the poem that supports your assertion of who the speaker is.

 Finally, in one sentence, explain the situation that requires the writing of this poem. What has the speaker experienced to make him/her/it write this poem?

Speaker:

How I know: 

Situation:

5. Poetry Exploration: Denotation  (5)

Directions: Define all the words you do not know in your poem. Do NOT use the root of a word to define itself. Use the definition that is appropriate for the poem. If you know the definition of every single word, then choose 4 words that are the most challenging vocabulary and provide that definition. INCLUDE any word you do not know how to say. 

6. Poetry Exploration: Connotation- All the thoughts, feelings, words, cultural associations, extended definition of a word.(10)

Directions: Copy/paste your POL poem divided by chunks on the left side. In the middle column, identify the MOST important word in the chunk and type that word. To determine the most important word, ask yourself which word makes a difference to the meaning or more of an impact on meaning. Once you have identified the most impactful word in the chunk, spend time writing all of the connotations you have with the word.  Eventually, you will begin to notice a pattern of the same type of connotations emerging from the poem. Note – when working with this step for class, work to identify a minimum of 10 total words in your poem. If you have fewer than 10 chunks, you may have to choose more than one important word for connotation. If you have more than 10 chunks, make sure you work with each chunk.

7. Poetry Exploration: Summary/Paraphrase (5)

Directions: You should already have your poem for POL divided by syntactical units/chunks. In the table below, copy your poem one chunk at a time on the left-hand column. On the right-hand column, summarize or paraphrase what is happening for that chunk or what the meaning is of that chunk. 

8. Poetry Exploration: Figurative Language (5)

Directions: Identify ALL of the figurative language/metaphor umbrella used in your poem. You may refer to the Metaphors and Meaning handout for your list of figurative language. 

 On the left hand column insert every single chunk of your poem.

 In the next column write N/A if there is not any figurative language. If there is figurative language, identify the type.

 In the next column write a sentence saying what is being compared to what. 

In the final column, write a sentence explaining the significance of the comparison. Explain what more you understand with the comparison.

POEM CHUNK

METAPHOR UMBRELLA

WHAT IS BEING COMPARED TO WHAT

SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARISON

POL: Tone Analysis of Poem (5)

Directions: Use the provided tone lists in the Poetry section of Classroom to determine the tone that is appropriate for each syntactic unit/chunk. Highlight where you see the major shift in the poem. Remember that a shift in tone can be complementary or contrasting. You must choose a specific tone word. You may not choose a general category. 

Syntactic Unit / Chunk from Poem

The tone you will use in delivery of chunk

p.p1 {margin: 18.0px 0.0px 6.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 18.0px; font: 12.0px Times; min-height: 14.0px} p p.p1 {margin: 18.0px 0.0px 6.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 18.0px; font: 12.0px Times; min-height: 14.0px} p.p4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p5 {margin: 18.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p6 {margin: 18.0px 0.0px 12.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p7 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; min-height: 14.0px} p.p8 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 18.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 12.0px Times} p.p9 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p10 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 36.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p11 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 36.0px; font: 12.0px Times} p.p12 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 55.0px; font: 12.0px Times} li.li2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} li.li4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times} span.s1 {text-decoration: underline} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} Paper Types: COVER PAGE & BLIND REVIEW FORMATTING STYLE: Sources: RESOURCES: Example of OPTIONAL Procedure & Outline (for Dualism or/versus Physicalism) Step 1: Read the relevant lecture slides (activate your memory regarding this stuff) Step 2: Read the Outline (so you know what to look for in the textbook) Introduction [work on this last] Background/Context Dualism Optional: Physicalism Optional: Your Assessment Conclusion [work on this 2nd to last] Step 3: Textbook, read “3.1: Overview: The Mind-Body Problem” As you read: (1) highlight with the outline in mind, and (2) jot notes in the outline (i.e., start filling in the outline; don’t worry about writing style or anything like that yet). You can either (A) while reading: do 1, and then, while re-reading: do 2 (this will take longer, but will help you really master the material), or (B) while reading: do 1 and 2. I’d recommend doing A for 3.1, and if you really get the hang of this, maybe you can do B when doing the other reading.  Note: 3.1 mentions dualism and physicalism; while it’s nowhere near enough information, it’s a good example of each view’s central claim/thesis. Step 4: Regarding 3.1, organize what you jotted down in the outline. Look for stuff you need that you missed. Cut out stuff you don’t need. Step 5: Textbook: Read “3.2: Dualism” and do the same as in Step 3.  Regarding the separate arguments for Dualism, read all of them, but keep in mind that you may only need one of them (focus on the one you most understand)—you may want to do (1) (from Step 3) for all of the arguments, and then (2) only for argument(s) you choose to include.  Step 6: Regarding “3.2: Dualism,” same as Step 4. Step 7: Check how long the paper looks like it will be at this point.  If you need more content, decide whether you want to either (A) add more arguments for/against dualism, or (B) add physicalism (using “3.3: Physicalism” skipping 234-240 on eliminativism, etc.). While doing A is less reading, the content will start getting harder (e.g., you are now focusing on arguments that weren’t the ones you best understood). Follow the procedures above in Step 3 and Step 4 for A or B. Check how long the paper looks like it will be at this point. If you need more content, do the A or B you didn’t do and/or do more arguments for and against physicalism (following the procedures in Step 3 and Step 4). Step 8: Consider whether you have anything interesting to say about the views, which view is better (if you did both), and/or ideas about your own view. Step 9: Write Conclusion Step 10: Write Introduction Step 11: Proofread and make revisions Essay Prompts (from option 2): Ethics Explain the divine command theory. Does divine command theory make philosophical ethics obsolete? Why (not)? Explain the Euthyphro Problem. Explain the ethical theory of utilitarianism. How did the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill differ? Which do you think is better (defend your answer)? How does Alastair Norcross argue for consequentialism in “Comparing Harms: Headaches and Human Lives”? How might someone criticize his argument? Do you agree with that criticism (defend your answer)? Explain what a hypothetical imperative is. Explain what a categorical imperative is. Why does Kant think that morality must consist of categorical imperatives? What does universalizability mean to Kant? What role does universalizability play in Kant’s ethical theory? Give examples. Do you think universalizability is important (defend your answer)? What are the two versions of Kant’s categorical imperative discussed in your text? How does a categorical imperative differ from a hypothetical imperative? Give some examples of how Kant would show that the categorical imperative provides ethical guidance in concrete circumstances. What does Kant mean by the “good will”? Why is it so important to his ethical theory? Why does he think that neither consequences nor inclinations should play a role in ethics? Do you agree with Kant (defend your answer)? Which of the following two people—Cold Colleen or Heartfelt Heather (see lecture slides)—best illustrates what it means to be a genuinely moral person (defend your answer with reasons)? What does Kant believe? Why? What does being an absolutist mean in ethics? Identify ways in which Kant is an absolutist? Do you agree or disagree with absolutism (defend your answer)? What criticisms does virtue ethics make of utilitarianism and Kantian ethics? Do you agree with these criticisms (defend your answer)? Show more

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You can either (A) while reading: do 1, and then, while re-reading: do 2 (this will take longer, but will help you really master the material), or (B) while reading: do 1 and 2. I’d recommend doing A for 3.1, and if you really get the hang of this, maybe you can do B when doing the other reading.   Note: 3.1 mentions dualism and physicalism; while it’s nowhere near enough information, it’s a good example of each view’s central claim/thesis.  Step 4: Regarding 3.1, organize what you jotted down in the outline. Look for stuff you need that you missed. Cut out stuff you don’t need.  Step 5: Textbook: Read “3.2: Dualism” and do the same as in Step 3.   Regarding the separate arguments for Dualism, read all of them, but keep in mind that you may only need one of them (focus on the one you most understand)—you may want to do (1) (from Step 3) for all of the arguments, and then (2) only for argument(s) you choose to include.   Step 6: Regarding “3.2: Dualism,” same as Step 4.  Step 7: Check how long the paper looks like it will be at this point.   If you need more content, decide whether you want to either (A) add more arguments for/against dualism, or (B) add physicalism (using “3.3: Physicalism” skipping 234-240 on eliminativism, etc.). While doing A is less reading, the content will start getting harder (e.g., you are now focusing on arguments that weren’t the ones you best understood). Follow the procedures above in Step 3 and Step 4 for A or B. Check how long the paper looks like it will be at this point. If you need more content, do the A or B you didn’t do and/or do more arguments for and against physicalism (following the procedures in Step 3 and Step 4).  Step 8: Consider whether you have anything interesting to say about the views, which view is better (if you did both), and/or ideas about your own view.  Step 9: Write Conclusion  Step 10: Write Introduction  Step 11: Proofread and make revisions  Essay Prompts (from option 2):  Ethics   Explain the divine command theory. Does divine command theory make philosophical ethics obsolete? Why (not)?  Explain the Euthyphro Problem.  Explain the ethical theory of utilitarianism. How did the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill differ? Which do you think is better (defend your answer)?  How does Alastair Norcross argue for consequentialism in “Comparing Harms: Headaches and Human Lives”? How might someone criticize his argument? Do you agree with that criticism (defend your answer)?  Explain what a hypothetical imperative is. Explain what a categorical imperative is. Why does Kant think that morality must consist of categorical imperatives?  What does universalizability mean to Kant? What role does universalizability play in Kant’s ethical theory? Give examples. Do you think universalizability is important (defend your answer)?  What are the two versions of Kant’s categorical imperative discussed in your text? How does a categorical imperative differ from a hypothetical imperative? Give some examples of how Kant would show that the categorical imperative provides ethical guidance in concrete circumstances.  What does Kant mean by the “good will”? Why is it so important to his ethical theory? Why does he think that neither consequences nor inclinations should play a role in ethics? Do you agree with Kant (defend your answer)?  Which of the following two people—Cold Colleen or Heartfelt Heather (see lecture slides)—best illustrates what it means to be a genuinely moral person (defend your answer with reasons)? What does Kant believe? Why?  What does being an absolutist mean in ethics? Identify ways in which Kant is an absolutist? Do you agree or disagree with absolutism (defend your answer)?  What criticisms does virtue ethics make of utilitarianism and Kantian ethics? Do you agree with these criticisms (defend your answer)?                                                     Show more

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Paper Types:

COVER PAGE & BLIND REVIEW

FORMATTING STYLE:

Sources:

RESOURCES:

Example of OPTIONAL Procedure & Outline (for Dualism or/versus Physicalism)

Step 1: Read the relevant lecture slides (activate your memory regarding this stuff)

Step 2: Read the Outline (so you know what to look for in the textbook)

  • Introduction [work on this last]
  • Background/Context
  • Dualism
  • Optional: Physicalism
  • Optional: Your Assessment
  • Conclusion [work on this 2nd to last]

Step 3: Textbook, read “3.1: Overview: The Mind-Body Problem”

As you read: (1) highlight with the outline in mind, and (2) jot notes in the outline (i.e., start filling in the outline; don’t worry about writing style or anything like that yet). You can either (A) while reading: do 1, and then, while re-reading: do 2 (this will take longer, but will help you really master the material), or (B) while reading: do 1 and 2. I’d recommend doing A for 3.1, and if you really get the hang of this, maybe you can do B when doing the other reading. 

Note: 3.1 mentions dualism and physicalism; while it’s nowhere near enough information, it’s a good example of each view’s central claim/thesis.

Step 4: Regarding 3.1, organize what you jotted down in the outline. Look for stuff you need that you missed. Cut out stuff you don’t need.

Step 5: Textbook: Read “3.2: Dualism” and do the same as in Step 3. 

Regarding the separate arguments for Dualism, read all of them, but keep in mind that you may only need one of them (focus on the one you most understand)—you may want to do (1) (from Step 3) for all of the arguments, and then (2) only for argument(s) you choose to include. 

Step 6: Regarding “3.2: Dualism,” same as Step 4.

Step 7: Check how long the paper looks like it will be at this point. 

If you need more content, decide whether you want to either (A) add more arguments for/against dualism, or (B) add physicalism (using “3.3: Physicalism” skipping 234-240 on eliminativism, etc.). While doing A is less reading, the content will start getting harder (e.g., you are now focusing on arguments that weren’t the ones you best understood). Follow the procedures above in Step 3 and Step 4 for A or B. Check how long the paper looks like it will be at this point. If you need more content, do the A or B you didn’t do and/or do more arguments for and against physicalism (following the procedures in Step 3 and Step 4).

Step 8: Consider whether you have anything interesting to say about the views, which view is better (if you did both), and/or ideas about your own view.

Step 9: Write Conclusion

Step 10: Write Introduction

Step 11: Proofread and make revisions

Essay Prompts (from option 2):

Ethics

  • Explain the divine command theory. Does divine command theory make philosophical ethics obsolete? Why (not)?
  • Explain the Euthyphro Problem.
  • Explain the ethical theory of utilitarianism. How did the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill differ? Which do you think is better (defend your answer)?
  • How does Alastair Norcross argue for consequentialism in “Comparing Harms: Headaches and Human Lives”? How might someone criticize his argument? Do you agree with that criticism (defend your answer)?
  • Explain what a hypothetical imperative is. Explain what a categorical imperative is. Why does Kant think that morality must consist of categorical imperatives?
  • What does universalizability mean to Kant? What role does universalizability play in Kant’s ethical theory? Give examples. Do you think universalizability is important (defend your answer)?
  • What are the two versions of Kant’s categorical imperative discussed in your text? How does a categorical imperative differ from a hypothetical imperative? Give some examples of how Kant would show that the categorical imperative provides ethical guidance in concrete circumstances.
  • What does Kant mean by the “good will”? Why is it so important to his ethical theory? Why does he think that neither consequences nor inclinations should play a role in ethics? Do you agree with Kant (defend your answer)?
  • Which of the following two people—Cold Colleen or Heartfelt Heather (see lecture slides)—best illustrates what it means to be a genuinely moral person (defend your answer with reasons)? What does Kant believe? Why?
  • What does being an absolutist mean in ethics? Identify ways in which Kant is an absolutist? Do you agree or disagree with absolutism (defend your answer)?
  • What criticisms does virtue ethics make of utilitarianism and Kantian ethics? Do you agree with these criticisms (defend your answer)?

In this final project, you will write a 5 page paper double spaced (excluding cover and reference pages). In this paper, you will select a racial or social issue that has affected your community over In this final project, you will write a 5 page paper double spaced (excluding cover and reference pages). In this paper, you will select a racial or social issue that has affected your community over time. (Address part 1-5 below – in summary, select he problem, discuss its historical background, discuss how racial/social stratification has intensified the problem in your community and provide recommendation on how to solve the problem). Use basic, secondary research skills to examine the history of a social and/or racial problem Discuss how social and racial stratification intensify the social and/or racial problem Synthesize recent and relevant secondary research in a review of literature on the social or racial problem (use more than 5 references). Compose recommendations on how to resolve or respond to the problem Compile a properly formatted APA reference list. Show more

In this final project, you will write a 5 page paper double spaced (excluding cover and reference pages). In this paper, you will select a racial or social issue that has affected your community over                                                         In this final project, you will write a 5 page paper double spaced (excluding cover and reference pages). In this paper, you will select a racial or social issue that has affected your community over time. (Address part 1-5 below – in summary, select he problem, discuss its historical background, discuss how racial/social stratification has intensified the problem in your community and provide recommendation on how to solve the problem).   Use basic, secondary research skills to examine the history of a social and/or racial problem  Discuss how social and racial stratification intensify the social and/or racial problem  Synthesize recent and relevant secondary research in a review of literature on the social or racial problem (use more than 5 references).  Compose recommendations on how to resolve or respond to the problem  Compile a properly formatted APA reference list.                                                     Show more

In this final project, you will write a 5 page paper double spaced (excluding cover and reference pages). In this paper, you will select a racial or social issue that has affected your community over time. (Address part 1-5 below – in summary, select he problem, discuss its historical background, discuss how racial/social stratification has intensified the problem in your community and provide recommendation on how to solve the problem).

  1. Use basic, secondary research skills to examine the history of a social and/or racial problem
  2. Discuss how social and racial stratification intensify the social and/or racial problem
  3. Synthesize recent and relevant secondary research in a review of literature on the social or racial problem (use more than 5 references).
  4. Compose recommendations on how to resolve or respond to the problem
  5. Compile a properly formatted APA reference list.

How does the attached lesson connect to ISTE Standard Five, which says—Students break problems into component parts, extract key information, and develop descriptive models to understand complex sys How does the attached lesson connect to ISTE Standard Five, which says—Students break problems into component parts, extract key information, and develop descriptive models to understand complex systems or facilitate problem-solving. How does the lesson connect to one or more of the four “pillars” (Decomposition, Pattern Matching, Abstraction, and Debugging) – focus on the computational thinking skills children are learning that provides a foundation for future learning as they progress through school. Discuss how the lesson aids in the learning experience for the child, specifically connected to the integration of the science and  non-science subject (math, literacy, social studies, and so forth). Please focus on connecting science and non-science concepts! Explain how connecting outdoor experiences makes this unplugged activity meaningful to the child.  Show more

How does the attached lesson connect to ISTE Standard Five, which says—Students break problems into component parts, extract key information, and develop descriptive models to understand complex sys                                                         How does the attached lesson connect to ISTE Standard Five, which says—Students break problems into component parts, extract key information, and develop descriptive models to understand complex systems or facilitate problem-solving.  How does the lesson connect to one or more of the four “pillars” (Decomposition, Pattern Matching, Abstraction, and Debugging) – focus on the computational thinking skills children are learning that provides a foundation for future learning as they progress through school.  Discuss how the lesson aids in the learning experience for the child, specifically connected to the integration of the science and  non-science subject (math, literacy, social studies, and so forth). Please focus on connecting science and non-science concepts!  Explain how connecting outdoor experiences makes this unplugged activity meaningful to the child.                                                     Show more

How does the attached lesson connect to ISTE Standard Five, which says—Students break problems into component parts, extract key information, and develop descriptive models to understand complex systems or facilitate problem-solving.

How does the lesson connect to one or more of the four “pillars” (Decomposition, Pattern Matching, Abstraction, and Debugging) – focus on the computational thinking skills children are learning that provides a foundation for future learning as they progress through school.

Discuss how the lesson aids in the learning experience for the child, specifically connected to the integration of the science and  non-science subject (math, literacy, social studies, and so forth). Please focus on connecting science and non-science concepts!

Explain how connecting outdoor experiences makes this unplugged activity meaningful to the child.