Please read the articles and then THOROUGHLY and COMPLETELY answer the following questions (a full paragraph for each). Articles: Link to Article 1: Mental Health Link to Article 2: Understanding th Please read the articles and then THOROUGHLY and COMPLETELY answer the following questions (a full paragraph for each). Articles: Link to Article 1: Mental Health Link to Article 2: Understanding the Impact Link to Article 3: Stigma and Discrimination Link to Article 4: The Impact of Mental Illness Stigma Link to Article 5: The Most Toxic Issue Link to Article 6: Let’s Call Mental Health Link to Article 7: Mental Illness and Violence Questions: Why are people with mental illness stigmatized? Why do we do it? Where does it come from? What are the ways that they are discriminated against? What are the effects of stigmatization and discrimination on people with mental illness? What can be done to change it?Please make sure to cite/quote the articles wherever possible! Show me that you read them!And remember to always be open-minded and respectful in your posts. Show more

Please read the articles and then THOROUGHLY and COMPLETELY answer

Please read the articles and then THOROUGHLY and COMPLETELY answer the following questions (a full paragraph for each).

Articles: Link to Article 1: Mental Health

Link to Article 2: Understanding the Impact

Link to Article 3: Stigma and Discrimination

Link to Article 4: The Impact of Mental Illness Stigma

Link to Article 5: The Most Toxic Issue

Link to Article 6: Let’s Call Mental Health

Link to Article 7: Mental Illness and Violence

Questions:

  1. Why are people with mental illness stigmatized? Why do we do it? Where does it come from?
  2. What are the ways that they are discriminated against?
  3. What are the effects of stigmatization and discrimination on people with mental illness?
  4. What can be done to change it?Please make sure to cite/quote the articles wherever possible! Show me that you read them!And remember to always be open-minded and respectful in your posts.

Project 4: Attack Vector Solutions Prestera Center for Mental Health Services in West Virginia CMP 610 Start Here Attack Vector Solutions [Music] As you complete your morning login routine, you notice Project 4: Attack Vector SolutionsPrestera Center for Mental Health Services in West Virginia CMP 610 Start Here Attack Vector Solutions [Music] As you complete your morning login routine, you notice an urgent message from John, the chief technology officer. “See Me ASAP!!” You grab your tablet and stylus and rush to John’s office. John gives you a friendly greeting as you enter his office, but he looks concerned. “Good morning,” John says. “I appreciate you dropping everything and coming by so quickly. I need your help with a high-level matter. Top executives are meeting to prepare for the quarterly meeting with the board of directors. They would like to review the current vulnerabilities and threats that the organization has in regards to our technology, people, and cybersecurity policies. The board will also be asking about our ability to educate the organization’s population on not only our policies and practices, but also the need for them. I need to prepare a presentation for the board meeting. However, I have several other urgent matters to oversee.” John continues, “I need you to prepare my presentation by reviewing common attack vectors, analyzing our vulnerabilities, and preparing recommendations on what we should do to protect ourselves. In addition, I need a brochure to show the board what we are doing to educate the organization on these issues. I need this review in two weeks.” You are grateful for John’s trust in allowing you to put together his presentation for the board, and now you’re eager to show that his faith in you is justified. You will have to combine your technical and research abilities to come up with the recommendations, and present them in a professional manner. [Music] Organizations must implement countermeasures to protect information and data that are vulnerable to cyberattacks. As new security threats are introduced, these countermeasures must be evaluated and improved. This is the final of four sequential projects. In this project, you will investigate common types of cyberattacks and possible solutions, evaluate the costs of implementing identified countermeasures, and communicate the recommended solution to a nontechnical audience. You will present to management the most likely attack vectors against your organization and suggest solutions ranked by cost and effectiveness. You will also suggest how the mix of identified state and nonstate actors should affect policy-maker decisions and policy development for critical infrastructure protection. There are 14 steps in this project. Begin by reviewing the project scenario and then proceed to Step 1. Competencies Your work will be evaluated using the competencies listed below.  5.2: Examine architectural methodologies and components used in the design and development of information systems.  6.2: Create an information security program and strategy, and maintain alignment of the two.  7.2: Evaluate international cybersecurity policy.  7.3: Evaluate enterprise cybersecurity policy.  8.2: Evaluate specific cybersecurity threats and the combination of technologies and policies that can address them. Step 1: Define Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Risks Vulnerabilities, threats, and risks are important to understand in order to evaluate and ultimately improve security posture by mitigating risks. Your organization’s security posture will determine its cybersecurity policies. Assessing risk is key in this process. Define vulnerability, threat, and risk. Consider their relationship to one another and how they relate to the security of networks and data. You will use this information to complete your vulnerability assessment. Review topics as needed from previous projects: creating a program, systems, utilities, and applications software, and interaction of software. Step 2: Identify Examples of Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Risks In the previous step, you familiarized yourself with the concepts of vulnerability, threat, and risk. You now understand their relationship to one another and how they relate to security. In this step, you are going to identify at least two examples of a vulnerability, two examples of a threat, and two examples of a risk in each of the following categories:  technology  people (human factors)  policy Identify a minimum of 18 examples. This will assist you in conducting the vulnerability assessment and developing the educational brochure. Review topics such as basic elements of communication and computer networks. In the next step, you will look more closely at current vulnerabilities and threats. Step 3: Identify Current Vulnerabilities and Threats After defining and identifying examples of vulnerabilities, threats, and risks in the first two steps, you should understand the basic concepts of vulnerabilities and threats as they apply to general cybersecurity. However, vulnerabilities and threats are dynamic: They can evolve with changes in technologies, changes in adversary capabilities or intentions, or changes in human behaviors and organizational policies. It is important to understand current vulnerabilities and threats and their applicability to the larger community as well as to your organization (e.g., critical infrastructure protection), so that you can make informed recommendations on how/whether to mitigate them. Identify current known vulnerabilities and threats that could affect your organization. The vulnerabilities and threats that you identify will be necessary for your final presentation. List a minimum of two current known vulnerabilities and threats involving the following:  people (human factors)  technology  policy When complete, move to the next step, where you will take part in a simulation. Step 4: Vulnerability Assessment and Operational Security eLearning Module To prepare for the upcoming vulnerability assessment, you will practice in a simulated environment with the Vulnerability Assessment and Operational Security eLearning Module. You will learn how to maintain effective audit, risk analysis, and vulnerability assessment practices in a fictional scenario. You will also review risk and vulnerability analysis tools. You may want to review some topics from earlier projects: network devices and cables and network protocols. Take notes during the simulation as the information will be helpful during your own vulnerability assessment in Step 7. Specifically note the major components of cybersecurity architecture, architectural methodologies for the physical structure of a system’s internal operations and interactions with other systems, and architectural methodology standards that are compliant with established standards or guidelines. When you have completed the simulation, move to the next step, when you will consider attack vectors. Step 5: Identify Attack Vectors Attack vectorsare the means by which vulnerabilities are exploited and threats realized. As a result, understanding attack vectors is critical to developing impactful mitigations. Identify applicable attack vectors, the weaknesses exploited, and the means used to gain access based on the vulnerabilities and threats identified in Step 2. Also note the common types of cyberattacks. The attack vectors and weaknesses that you identify will be necessary for your vulnerability assessment and final presentation. You may want to review some topics from earlier projects: a closer look at the World Wide Web  web markup languages , and web and internet services. Identify attack vectors and weaknesses exploited via the following:  hardware  software  operating systems  telecommunications  human factors In the next step, you will take a closer look at the importance of attribution. Step 6: Examine and Identify Known Attributes Attribution is often difficult, if not impossible, to identify. One reason is the anonymity afforded by the internet. Another reason is the potential sophistication of malicious state actors and nonstate actors who are able to disguise themselves and/or exploit an innocent and often unknowing computer user to achieve their goals. Attribution is desired because knowing who is behind an exploit can provide insight into the motivations, intentions, and capabilities of threat actors. Understanding attack vectors used by threat actors provides key insights that help to build stronger defenses and construct better policy management. To complete your vulnerability assessment, you will need to first do the following:  From the attack vectors identified in the previous step, determine if attribution is known for the threat actor (e.g., name of nation state, nonstate and/or hackers and threat actors) most likely involved in exploiting each weakness.  Categorize the threat actor(s) based on attribution for previous exploits, likely targets, and rationale(s) for targeting/exploitation (e.g., profit, political statements, extortion, etc.). In the next step, you will compile your findings from the past few steps on a spreadsheet. Step 7: Submit a Vulnerability Assessment Spreadsheet From the results of Steps 4, 5, and 6, develop and submit a spreadsheet that includes the following:  characterization of current and emerging vulnerabilities and threats  identification of the attack vector(s) employed against each  your assessment (high, medium, or low) of the impact the vulnerability could have on your organization Make sure to address security architectures, including components, specifications, guidelines, standards, technologies, etc. Also consider international threats and attack vectors. This assessment will be included in your final presentation. Submission for Vulnerability Assessment Previous submissions 0 Drop files here, or click below. Add Files In the next step, you will consider ways to address the vulnerabilities and threats identified. Step 8: Identify Countermeasures Now that you have assessed your organization’s vulnerability, you are ready to identify possible countermeasures. Identify specific countermeasures that will address the vulnerabilities/threats to your organization that you summarized in the previous step. Review best practices as well as any published mitigations for the specific weaknesses identified. Include both cyber defenses and, as appropriate and legal in the United States, cyber offenses (cyber offensives/warfare). Make sure to address key cybersecurity technologies, methodologies, standards, and legal compliance. Record the findings to be included in your upcoming white-paper resource for the final presentation. You will need to figure out the cost of your security solutions, and you will do that in the next step. Step 9: Determine the Cost of Security Solutions Once you have identified possible countermeasures for your organization, you will need to determine their cost. Discuss the relative financial impact of these countermeasures, considering appropriate technology and policy changes to address cyberthreats at the enterprise, national, and international levels as a result of procurement, implementation, and maintenance. Also consider the policy and technology trade-offs at each level. Rank the countermeasures according to cost and effectiveness. Record your findings to be included in your upcoming white-paper resource for your final presentation. In the next step, you will be asked to consider how successful your mitigations will be. Step 10: Assess the Potential Success of Mitigations Now that you have identified countermeasures and their costs, develop an assessment of the likelihood of success of the mitigations when implemented as you prescribe. Criteria to be considered should include the following:  ease of implementation (technically as well as from a policy perspective)  ease of adoption by the workforce  impact on ability to perform the organization's work (e.g., is productivity affected are additional steps required that impede workflow?)  record of success of this mitigation on the same/similar weakness  cost (as a factor of the overall budget of the organization, e.g., will significant trade-offs have to be made in order to invest in this solution?)  leadership support Record the findings to be included in your upcoming white-paper resource for the final presentation. Step 11: Submit the Countermeasures White Paper Compile your findings from the last three steps and submit a three- page paper that describes the countermeasures, cost, and potential challenges with implementing them in your organization. This paper will provide much of the basis for your final presentation. Make sure to include the following:  critical issues in cybersecurity management and technology policy  principles of cyber warfare theory and application (cyber offensives/warfare)  various concepts of enterprise cybersecurity  cybersecurity standards organizations  key initiatives in international cybersecurity policy advances Submit your paper for feedback. Submission for Countermeasures White Paper Previous submissions 0 Drop files here, or click below. Step 12: Summarize the Solutions In order to develop recommendations to include in your presentation, you must prepare your solutions. Summarize recommended solutions to mitigate the vulnerabilities and/or threats as identified in Step 10, with at least two recommendations each in the categories of people, technology, and policy. Rank your recommended solutions by both cost and effectiveness. You will use this solutions summary to develop your recommendations in your final presentation. Step 13: Develop Your Security Recommendations Your presentation will also need to consider an overall security strategy. Develop the overall way forward for your company that includes an explanation of the current security environment in your organization, identification of security vulnerabilities and threats, explanation of attack vectors, and recommended solutions. Refer specifically to the information prepared in Steps 4 through 12. Your recommendations must meet the following criteria:  coincide with IT vision, mission, and goals  align with business strategy  incorporate all internal and external business functions within the organization’s security program  create an organizational structure, if it does not already exist, to operate the security program and align it with the entities of the organization as a whole  include a rough implementation plan  evaluate the effectiveness of the security program These recommendations will be the focus of your presentation. Step 14: Submit the Presentation You now have the information needed to develop the slide presentation that John requested for senior management. The presentation should clearly explain current known weaknesses in your organization’s security (to include people, technology, and policy) that could result in successful exploitation of known vulnerabilities and/or threats. Develop a narrated slide presentation of 16 to 20 slides that concludes with the recommended way forward (e.g., continue to accept risks, accept some risks (identify them), mitigate some risks (identify them), mitigate all risks, etc.). Submit your presentation for review when complete. Check Your Evaluation Criteria Before you submit your assignment, review the competencies below, which your instructor will use to evaluate your work. A good practice would be to use each competency as a self-check to confirm you have incorporated all of them. To view the complete grading rubric, click My Tools, select Assignments from the drop-down menu, and then click the project title.  5.2: Examine architectural methodologies and components used in the design and development of information systems.  6.2: Create an information security program and strategy, and maintain alignment of the two.  7.2: Evaluate international cybersecurity policy.  7.3: Evaluate enterprise cybersecurity policy.  8.2: Evaluate specific cybersecurity threats and the combination of technologies and policies that can address them. Submission for Cybersecurity Recommendations Presentation Show more

Project 4: Attack Vector Solutions Prestera Center for Mental Health

Project 4: Attack Vector SolutionsPrestera Center for Mental Health Services in West Virginia CMP 610

Start Here

Attack Vector Solutions

[Music]

As you complete your morning login routine, you notice an urgent

message from John, the chief technology officer.

“See Me ASAP!!”

You grab your tablet and stylus and rush to John’s office.

John gives you a friendly greeting as you enter his office, but he looks

concerned.

“Good morning,” John says. “I appreciate you dropping everything and

coming by so quickly. I need your help with a high-level matter. Top

executives are meeting to prepare for the quarterly meeting with the

board of directors. They would like to review the current vulnerabilities

and threats that the organization has in regards to our technology,

people, and cybersecurity policies. The board will also be asking about

our ability to educate the organization’s population on not only our

policies and practices, but also the need for them. I need to prepare a

presentation for the board meeting. However, I have several other

urgent matters to oversee.”

John continues, “I need you to prepare my presentation by reviewing

common attack vectors, analyzing our vulnerabilities, and preparing

recommendations on what we should do to protect ourselves. In

addition, I need a brochure to show the board what we are doing to

educate the organization on these issues. I need this review in two

weeks.”

You are grateful for John’s trust in allowing you to put together his

presentation for the board, and now you’re eager to show that his faith

in you is justified.

You will have to combine your technical and research abilities to come

up with the recommendations, and present them in a professional

manner.

[Music]

Organizations must implement countermeasures to protect information

and data that are vulnerable to cyberattacks. As new security threats

are introduced, these countermeasures must be evaluated and

improved.

This is the final of four sequential projects. In this project, you will

investigate common types of cyberattacks and possible solutions,

evaluate the costs of implementing identified countermeasures, and

communicate the recommended solution to a nontechnical audience.

You will present to management the most likely attack vectors against

your organization and suggest solutions ranked by cost and

effectiveness. You will also suggest how the mix of identified state and

nonstate actors should affect policy-maker decisions and policy

development for critical infrastructure protection.

There are 14 steps in this project. Begin by reviewing the project

scenario and then proceed to Step 1.

Competencies

Your work will be evaluated using the competencies listed below.

 5.2: Examine architectural methodologies and components used

in the design and development of information systems.

 6.2: Create an information security program and strategy, and

maintain alignment of the two.

 7.2: Evaluate international cybersecurity policy.

 7.3: Evaluate enterprise cybersecurity policy.

 8.2: Evaluate specific cybersecurity threats and the combination

of technologies and policies that can address them.

Step 1: Define Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Risks

Vulnerabilities, threats, and risks are important to understand in order

to evaluate and ultimately improve security posture by mitigating risks.

Your organization’s security posture will determine its cybersecurity

policies. Assessing risk is key in this process.

Define vulnerability, threat, and risk. Consider their relationship to one

another and how they relate to the security of networks and data.

You will use this information to complete your vulnerability assessment.

Review topics as needed from previous projects: creating a

program, systems, utilities, and applications software, and interaction

of software.

Step 2: Identify Examples of Vulnerabilities, Threats, and

Risks

In the previous step, you familiarized yourself with the concepts of

vulnerability, threat, and risk. You now understand their relationship to

one another and how they relate to security. In this step, you are going

to identify at least two examples of a vulnerability, two examples of a

threat, and two examples of a risk in each of the following categories:

 technology

 people (human factors)

 policy

Identify a minimum of 18 examples. This will assist you in conducting

the vulnerability assessment and developing the educational brochure.

Review topics such as basic elements of communication and computer

networks.

In the next step, you will look more closely at current vulnerabilities and

threats.

Step 3: Identify Current Vulnerabilities and Threats

After defining and identifying examples of vulnerabilities, threats, and

risks in the first two steps, you should understand the basic concepts of

vulnerabilities and threats as they apply to general cybersecurity.

However, vulnerabilities and threats are dynamic: They can evolve with

changes in technologies, changes in adversary capabilities or

intentions, or changes in human behaviors and organizational policies.

It is important to understand current vulnerabilities and threats and

their applicability to the larger community as well as to your

organization (e.g., critical infrastructure protection), so that you can

make informed recommendations on how/whether to mitigate them.

Identify current known vulnerabilities and threats that could affect your

organization. The vulnerabilities and threats that you identify will be

necessary for your final presentation.

List a minimum of two current known vulnerabilities and threats

involving the following:

 people (human factors)

 technology

 policy

When complete, move to the next step, where you will take part in a

simulation.

Step 4: Vulnerability Assessment and Operational Security

eLearning Module

To prepare for the upcoming vulnerability assessment, you will practice

in a simulated environment with the Vulnerability Assessment and

Operational Security eLearning Module. You will learn how to maintain

effective audit, risk analysis, and vulnerability assessment practices in

a fictional scenario. You will also review risk and vulnerability analysis

tools. You may want to review some topics from earlier

projects: network devices and cables and network protocols.

Take notes during the simulation as the information will be helpful

during your own vulnerability assessment in Step 7. Specifically note

the major components of cybersecurity architecture, architectural

methodologies for the physical structure of a system’s internal

operations and interactions with other systems, and architectural

methodology standards that are compliant with established standards

or guidelines.

When you have completed the simulation, move to the next step, when

you will consider attack vectors.

Step 5: Identify Attack Vectors

Attack vectorsare the means by which vulnerabilities are exploited and

threats realized. As a result, understanding attack vectors is critical to

developing impactful mitigations. Identify applicable attack vectors, the

weaknesses exploited, and the means used to gain access based on

the vulnerabilities and threats identified in Step 2. Also note the

common types of cyberattacks.

The attack vectors and weaknesses that you identify will be necessary

for your vulnerability assessment and final presentation. You may want

to review some topics from earlier projects: a closer look at the World

Wide Web  web markup languages , and web and internet services.

Identify attack vectors and weaknesses exploited via the following:

 hardware

 software

 operating systems

 telecommunications

 human factors

In the next step, you will take a closer look at the importance of

attribution.

Step 6: Examine and Identify Known Attributes

Attribution is often difficult, if not impossible, to identify. One reason is

the anonymity afforded by the internet. Another reason is the potential

sophistication of malicious state actors and nonstate actors who are

able to disguise themselves and/or exploit an innocent and often

unknowing computer user to achieve their goals.

Attribution is desired because knowing who is behind an exploit can

provide insight into the motivations, intentions, and capabilities of

threat actors. Understanding attack vectors used by threat actors

provides key insights that help to build stronger defenses and construct

better policy management.

To complete your vulnerability assessment, you will need to first do the

following:

 From the attack vectors identified in the previous step, determine

if attribution is known for the threat actor (e.g., name of nation

state, nonstate and/or hackers and threat actors) most likely

involved in exploiting each weakness.

 Categorize the threat actor(s) based on attribution for previous

exploits, likely targets, and rationale(s) for targeting/exploitation

(e.g., profit, political statements, extortion, etc.).

In the next step, you will compile your findings from the past few steps

on a spreadsheet.

Step 7: Submit a Vulnerability Assessment Spreadsheet

From the results of Steps 4, 5, and 6, develop and submit a

spreadsheet that includes the following:

 characterization of current and emerging vulnerabilities and

threats

 identification of the attack vector(s) employed against each

 your assessment (high, medium, or low) of the impact the

vulnerability could have on your organization

Make sure to address security architectures, including components,

specifications, guidelines, standards, technologies, etc. Also consider

international threats and attack vectors. This assessment will be

included in your final presentation.

Submission for Vulnerability Assessment

Previous submissions

0

Drop files here, or click below.

Add Files

In the next step, you will consider ways to address the vulnerabilities

and threats identified.

Step 8: Identify Countermeasures

Now that you have assessed your organization’s vulnerability, you are

ready to identify possible countermeasures. Identify specific

countermeasures that will address the vulnerabilities/threats to your

organization that you summarized in the previous step.

Review best practices as well as any published mitigations for the

specific weaknesses identified. Include both cyber defenses and, as

appropriate and legal in the United States, cyber offenses (cyber

offensives/warfare). Make sure to address key cybersecurity

technologies, methodologies, standards, and legal compliance.

Record the findings to be included in your upcoming white-paper

resource for the final presentation.

You will need to figure out the cost of your security solutions, and you

will do that in the next step.

Step 9: Determine the Cost of Security Solutions

Once you have identified possible countermeasures for your

organization, you will need to determine their cost. Discuss the relative

financial impact of these countermeasures, considering appropriate

technology and policy changes to address cyberthreats at the

enterprise, national, and international levels as a result of procurement,

implementation, and maintenance. Also consider the policy and

technology trade-offs at each level.

Rank the countermeasures according to cost and effectiveness.

Record your findings to be included in your upcoming white-paper

resource for your final presentation.

In the next step, you will be asked to consider how successful your

mitigations will be.

Step 10: Assess the Potential Success of Mitigations

Now that you have identified countermeasures and their costs, develop

an assessment of the likelihood of success of the mitigations when

implemented as you prescribe. Criteria to be considered should include

the following:

 ease of implementation (technically as well as from a policy

perspective)

 ease of adoption by the workforce

 impact on ability to perform the organization's work (e.g., is

productivity affected are additional steps required that impede

workflow?)

 record of success of this mitigation on the same/similar weakness

 cost (as a factor of the overall budget of the organization, e.g.,

will significant trade-offs have to be made in order to invest in this

solution?)

 leadership support

Record the findings to be included in your upcoming white-paper

resource for the final presentation.

Step 11: Submit the Countermeasures White Paper

Compile your findings from the last three steps and submit a three-

page paper that describes the countermeasures, cost, and potential

challenges with implementing them in your organization. This paper will

provide much of the basis for your final presentation. Make sure to

include the following:

 critical issues in cybersecurity management and technology

policy

 principles of cyber warfare theory and application (cyber

offensives/warfare)

 various concepts of enterprise cybersecurity

 cybersecurity standards organizations

 key initiatives in international cybersecurity policy advances

Submit your paper for feedback.

Submission for Countermeasures White Paper

Previous submissions

0

Drop files here, or click below.

Step 12: Summarize the Solutions

In order to develop recommendations to include in your presentation,

you must prepare your solutions. Summarize recommended solutions

to mitigate the vulnerabilities and/or threats as identified in Step 10,

with at least two recommendations each in the categories of people,

technology, and policy. Rank your recommended solutions by both

cost and effectiveness. You will use this solutions summary to develop

your recommendations in your final presentation.

Step 13: Develop Your Security Recommendations

Your presentation will also need to consider an overall security

strategy. Develop the overall way forward for your company that

includes an explanation of the current security environment in your

organization, identification of security vulnerabilities and threats,

explanation of attack vectors, and recommended solutions. Refer

specifically to the information prepared in Steps 4 through 12. Your

recommendations must meet the following criteria:

 coincide with IT vision, mission, and goals

 align with business strategy

 incorporate all internal and external business functions within the

organization’s security program

 create an organizational structure, if it does not already exist, to

operate the security program and align it with the entities of the

organization as a whole

 include a rough implementation plan

 evaluate the effectiveness of the security program

These recommendations will be the focus of your presentation.

Step 14: Submit the Presentation

You now have the information needed to develop the slide presentation

that John requested for senior management. The presentation should

clearly explain current known weaknesses in your organization’s

security (to include people, technology, and policy) that could result in

successful exploitation of known vulnerabilities and/or threats.

Develop a narrated slide presentation of 16 to 20 slides that concludes

with the recommended way forward (e.g., continue to accept risks,

accept some risks (identify them), mitigate some risks (identify them),

mitigate all risks, etc.).

Submit your presentation for review when complete.

Check Your Evaluation Criteria

Before you submit your assignment, review the competencies below,

which your instructor will use to evaluate your work. A good practice

would be to use each competency as a self-check to confirm you have

incorporated all of them. To view the complete grading rubric, click My

Tools, select Assignments from the drop-down menu, and then click

the project title.

 5.2: Examine architectural methodologies and components used

in the design and development of information systems.

 6.2: Create an information security program and strategy, and

maintain alignment of the two.

 7.2: Evaluate international cybersecurity policy.

 7.3: Evaluate enterprise cybersecurity policy.

 8.2: Evaluate specific cybersecurity threats and the combination

of technologies and policies that can address them.

Submission for Cybersecurity Recommendations

Presentation

You will prepare and submit a term paper on The WBS 2 module. Your paper should be a minimum of 500 words in length. You will prepare and submit a term paper on The WBS 2 module. Your paper should be a minimum of 500 words in length. The WBS 2 module Completing the WBS 2 module this semester has been a great opportunity for me to learn at various levels. The module gave me the knowledge about the importance of core standards and their application within the workplace. This was especially during the creation of the core standards application portfolio, which gave me an enhanced understanding of WBS and the process of management, knowledge, and tools (Telli, 2010: p50). The module’s contents, along with my tutor’s effective instruction methods played a vital part in the confidence I have in my ability to apply the theoretical frameworks to my future career. In addition, I believe that the WBS preparation techniques and tools, and WBS quality principles studied over the course of the module are applicable in real life situations. My experience throughout the semester in attending the module, as well as completing the portfolios, has equipped me with ideas related to WBS today. Particularly, I was not fully appreciative of the importance of quality creation in work breakdown, structure practice standards. However, I am convinced after completing the module that defining the objectives of a project and work delegation to team members are fundamental practices required for successful application of core standards within the workplace (Armstrong & Kotler, 2010: p17). This module has also aided me in my ability to conduct research and do so independently, while the opportunity to work with my classmates on research projects has improved my teamwork skills (Picard, 2012: p9). However, there were difficulties during the report-writing stage, especially when it came to choosing the scenario that would be discussed, all the while ensuring that the report was objective. In addition, accessing relevant journals and texts was difficult, especially when multiple sources were involved. The peer assessment feedback was a big help since it enabled the group and I to identify areas, which we needed to improve on. When I had to work on my portfolios by myself, I also faced various challenges, including time management. Moreover, while some of the instructions seemed straight-forward in the beginning, I realized that my tutor meant to improve my research ability, as well as ensure that I had an adequate objectivity level as opined by Hill (2011: p41). The tutor made it clear that any arguments used would have to be supported by valid references and/or explanations, which meant that I had to correct some of my text until I presented satisfactory work. Indeed, I am confident that I satisfied my module tutor’s requirements. It was challenging for me work independently, especially since the research in application of work based structure was very extensive (Mitchell, 2013: p22), while, as stated, most of the sources accessed proved to be irrelevant to the portfolios. However, if I could do it again, I would seek to access my module tutor more when I came across issues that my classmates could not solve, as well. It would also be wise to attend all the module seminars and lectures where possible, of which I plan to make a personal development plan and follow it. Overall, I still feel confident that my writing skills and data collection skills improved immensely as a result of this module and the assignments given under it. Time management is crucial in managing work based structures (Arnold, 2009: p32), although I feel that was not my strongest point when completing my portfolios, and I feel that it could have interfered with my ability to study. I am personally satisfied that I did the best I could and was able to relate the module to earlier modules. I hope that I will relate future modules to this one, while also learning from my mistakes. References Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2010). Marketing: an introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall. Arnold, C. (2009). Ethical marketing and the new consumer. Chichester, U.K., Wiley. Hill, R. P. (2011). Marketing and consumer research in the public interest. Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage Publications. Kotler, P. (2010). Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall. Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2011). Principles of marketing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall. Mitchell, J. (2013). Marketing and the consumer movement. London, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Picard, R. (2012). Marketing and the consumer. [Toronto, Canada], Pitman (Canada). Telli, G. (2010). Mobilized marketing and the consumer: technological developments and challenges. Hershey, PA, Business Science Reference. Show more

You will prepare and submit a term paper on The

You will prepare and submit a term paper on The WBS 2 module. Your paper should be a minimum of 500 words in length. The WBS 2 module

Completing the WBS 2 module this semester has been a great opportunity for me to learn at various levels. The module gave me the knowledge about the importance of core standards and their application within the workplace. This was especially during the creation of the core standards application portfolio, which gave me an enhanced understanding of WBS and the process of management, knowledge, and tools (Telli, 2010: p50). The module’s contents, along with my tutor’s effective instruction methods played a vital part in the confidence I have in my ability to apply the theoretical frameworks to my future career. In addition, I believe that the WBS preparation techniques and tools, and WBS quality principles studied over the course of the module are applicable in real life situations. My experience throughout the semester in attending the module, as well as completing the portfolios, has equipped me with ideas related to WBS today. Particularly, I was not fully appreciative of the importance of quality creation in work breakdown, structure practice standards. However, I am convinced after completing the module that defining the objectives of a project and work delegation to team members are fundamental practices required for successful application of core standards within the workplace (Armstrong & Kotler, 2010: p17).

This module has also aided me in my ability to conduct research and do so independently, while the opportunity to work with my classmates on research projects has improved my teamwork skills (Picard, 2012: p9). However, there were difficulties during the report-writing stage, especially when it came to choosing the scenario that would be discussed, all the while ensuring that the report was objective. In addition, accessing relevant journals and texts was difficult, especially when multiple sources were involved. The peer assessment feedback was a big help since it enabled the group and I to identify areas, which we needed to improve on. When I had to work on my portfolios by myself, I also faced various challenges, including time management. Moreover, while some of the instructions seemed straight-forward in the beginning, I realized that my tutor meant to improve my research ability, as well as ensure that I had an adequate objectivity level as opined by Hill (2011: p41). The tutor made it clear that any arguments used would have to be supported by valid references and/or explanations, which meant that I had to correct some of my text until I presented satisfactory work. Indeed, I am confident that I satisfied my module tutor’s requirements.

It was challenging for me work independently, especially since the research in application of work based structure was very extensive (Mitchell, 2013: p22), while, as stated, most of the sources accessed proved to be irrelevant to the portfolios. However, if I could do it again, I would seek to access my module tutor more when I came across issues that my classmates could not solve, as well. It would also be wise to attend all the module seminars and lectures where possible, of which I plan to make a personal development plan and follow it. Overall, I still feel confident that my writing skills and data collection skills improved immensely as a result of this module and the assignments given under it. Time management is crucial in managing work based structures (Arnold, 2009: p32), although I feel that was not my strongest point when completing my portfolios, and I feel that it could have interfered with my ability to study. I am personally satisfied that I did the best I could and was able to relate the module to earlier modules. I hope that I will relate future modules to this one, while also learning from my mistakes.

References

Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2010). Marketing: an introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall.

Arnold, C. (2009). Ethical marketing and the new consumer. Chichester, U.K., Wiley.

Hill, R. P. (2011). Marketing and consumer research in the public interest. Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage Publications.

Kotler, P. (2010). Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2011). Principles of marketing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall.

Mitchell, J. (2013). Marketing and the consumer movement. London, McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Picard, R. (2012). Marketing and the consumer. [Toronto, Canada], Pitman (Canada).

Telli, G. (2010). Mobilized marketing and the consumer: technological developments and challenges. Hershey, PA, Business Science Reference.

Write 6 pages thesis on the topic the impact of biodiversity for human. Because humans have that superiority complex that there are a lot of things that he is able to do by himself, he does not realiz Write 6 pages thesis on the topic the impact of biodiversity for human. Because humans have that superiority complex that there are a lot of things that he is able to do by himself, he does not realize that his actions have an effect in the environment and the environment has an effect on his actions and decisions. It is a fact that humans will not survive without interaction or without any help from the natural environment. Humans get food, shelter, even medicine, and clothing from the environment. Without contact with the natural environment, humans will not be able to live properly because there will be no source of food and other basic needs. Even processed foods need materials from the environment like salt and other minerals. This clearly shows that humans are indeed part of biodiversity since there is an interaction between humans and the environment and there are ecological processes that transpire between them. Because human interaction is involved in biodiversity, it can then be taken into account that whatever cultural and linguistic diversity the humans have has been impacted by the changes in the environment. This can be clearly seen in the different lifestyles of human society. Just take a look at the differences in the clothing style of people in different societies. Those who are located in the cold regions tend to dress thickly than those located in the tropical regions. Even within the society, there are differences that can be taken into account in the environment that they are living in. In the older times, those who are living in the mountains have hunting as their source of food while those living in the valleys have farming as their source of food. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The natural environment offers limited resources. When the natural resources have been depleted already, humans migrate to another land. With this, they encounter other cultures and assimilate their culture with their own, either adapting to it or completely merging their own values and norms with it. This is another evidence of how the environment impacts cultural diversity. Show more

Write 6 pages thesis on the topic the impact of

Write 6 pages thesis on the topic the impact of biodiversity for human. Because humans have that superiority complex that there are a lot of things that he is able to do by himself, he does not realize that his actions have an effect in the environment and the environment has an effect on his actions and decisions. It is a fact that humans will not survive without interaction or without any help from the natural environment. Humans get food, shelter, even medicine, and clothing from the environment. Without contact with the natural environment, humans will not be able to live properly because there will be no source of food and other basic needs. Even processed foods need materials from the environment like salt and other minerals. This clearly shows that humans are indeed part of biodiversity since there is an interaction between humans and the environment and there are ecological processes that transpire between them.

Because human interaction is involved in biodiversity, it can then be taken into account that whatever cultural and linguistic diversity the humans have has been impacted by the changes in the environment. This can be clearly seen in the different lifestyles of human society. Just take a look at the differences in the clothing style of people in different societies. Those who are located in the cold regions tend to dress thickly than those located in the tropical regions. Even within the society, there are differences that can be taken into account in the environment that they are living in. In the older times, those who are living in the mountains have hunting as their source of food while those living in the valleys have farming as their source of food.

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The natural environment offers limited resources. When the natural resources have been depleted already, humans migrate to another land. With this, they encounter other cultures and assimilate their culture with their own, either adapting to it or completely merging their own values and norms with it. This is another evidence of how the environment impacts cultural diversity.

Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Cellular Phone Use and Driving: A Problem in North Carolina. It needs to be at least 1250 words. Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Cellular Phone Use and Driving: A Problem in North Carolina. It needs to be at least 1250 words. Accordingly, cellular phone users are found throughout the state of North Carolina and this invention has transformed the ways in which North Carolinians interact, relate, and do business with one another.&nbsp. Due to the prevalence of cell phone use today, recent studies have demonstrated that cell phone use while driving is a risky behavior with the potential to cause serious harm and even death.&nbsp. &nbsp. Many states throughout the Union have sought to address this issue by banning the use of handheld devices, either to her to call someone to speak on the phone or to send a text message, while driving. While North Carolina has presently debated solutions to the problem associated with cell phone use and operating a motor vehicle, the best option for the state would be to ban the use of cell phones while driving. This is the best solution because it would effectively put an end danger associated with talking on a cell phone and operating a vehicle. Presently, however, the state of North Carolina has less substantial legislation on the books which does not aim for a wholesale ban but rather limits the use of cell phones while operating a motor vehicle to certain classifications of individuals. Arguing that this is insufficient to mitigate the risk, and the outright ban would be the best solution. Aiming to address the use of cell phones while operating a vehicle, the following report will begin with an introduction to the problem which outlines why it is important, who is affected and why this issue should be on the government’s agenda. The following will explore the criteria that must be met for any solution to be acceptable to the wider public. This section will focus on both the capacities and the constraints that the government faces with respect to banning cell phone use in automobiles. Following this, two solutions to the problem will be outlined with an analysis of who will be responsible for lamenting the solutions a summary table will compare and contrast both the pros and cons of each possible solution. Show more

Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article

Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Cellular Phone Use and Driving: A Problem in North Carolina. It needs to be at least 1250 words. Accordingly, cellular phone users are found throughout the state of North Carolina and this invention has transformed the ways in which North Carolinians interact, relate, and do business with one another.&nbsp. Due to the prevalence of cell phone use today, recent studies have demonstrated that cell phone use while driving is a risky behavior with the potential to cause serious harm and even death.&nbsp. &nbsp.

Many states throughout the Union have sought to address this issue by banning the use of handheld devices, either to her to call someone to speak on the phone or to send a text message, while driving. While North Carolina has presently debated solutions to the problem associated with cell phone use and operating a motor vehicle, the best option for the state would be to ban the use of cell phones while driving. This is the best solution because it would effectively put an end danger associated with talking on a cell phone and operating a vehicle. Presently, however, the state of North Carolina has less substantial legislation on the books which does not aim for a wholesale ban but rather limits the use of cell phones while operating a motor vehicle to certain classifications of individuals. Arguing that this is insufficient to mitigate the risk, and the outright ban would be the best solution. Aiming to address the use of cell phones while operating a vehicle, the following report will begin with an introduction to the problem which outlines why it is important, who is affected and why this issue should be on the government’s agenda. The following will explore the criteria that must be met for any solution to be acceptable to the wider public. This section will focus on both the capacities and the constraints that the government faces with respect to banning cell phone use in automobiles. Following this, two solutions to the problem will be outlined with an analysis of who will be responsible for lamenting the solutions a summary table will compare and contrast both the pros and cons of each possible solution.

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on social and cultural diversity. Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on social and cultural diversity. Social and Cultural Diversity Paper Outline Introduction Diversity is an important and innate aspect of every society or community existing in the world. Every person existing with our surroundings is different and unique in one or many ways. Sometimes it becomes difficult to handle the differences, a situation that leads to unintentional war and conflict. People are different in terms of gender orientation, culture, physical structure of the body, health condition, education, knowledge, religion, race and behavior among others. Understanding the principle of diversity and accepting as well as appreciating uniqueness of every person is best way to ensure harmonious and constructive survival with different people. Definition of cultural diversity Cultural diversity otherwise called cultural pluralism refers to the existence within a society of various cultures, races, religions, ethnic groups and other distinct groups with each practicing different lifestyle and values. Part 1 1) Personally witnessed discrimination and heard narrations about history of discrimination and effects within America. Cultural background nearly instigated to involve in discrimination along the lines of diversity, but humbled by professional advice. 2) Personal contact with people of diversity and experiences gained relating and working with the people of diversity. 3) The impacts of the experiences gained concerning ways to deal and relate with people of diversity. a) Discipline b) Love c) Care d) Understanding e) Persevering f) Appreciating 4) Personal biases a. Perfectionism Can lead into denying client to exhaust their efforts in performing activities or duties. b. Prejudgment Can lead into limiting or restricting thinking capacity of a clientele. c. Ascent Can lead incessant correction of client. Can lead to misunderstanding a client. 5) Meaning of diversity. a) Experiences with people of diversity. b) Impacts of relating with people of diversity. c) Personal biases and impact on therapeutic process. ­ 6) Conclusion Part 2 1) The meaning of subtle racist A person who likes discriminating on others in indirect manner that with intention to conceal the reason behind or intent behind certain racist acts. 2) Existence of differences in values and perceptions among members of same ethnic group. 3) Relationship and level of exposure to members of other ethnic groups. 4) Personal experiences with relating to other people. 5) Level of social knowledge exhibited by each individual. 6) Existence of specific stereotypes towards other people of diversity. Part 3 1) Importance of codes of ethics of ACA and NAADAC in effective therapeutic and counseling work. 2) Lessons learnt on cultural sensitivity in planning of treatment. 3) Differences in communication styles as employed in different cultures 4) Techniques of building rapport for different cultures. Show more

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on social and cultural diversity. Social and Cultural Diversity Paper

Outline

Introduction

Diversity is an important and innate aspect of every society or community existing in the world. Every person existing with our surroundings is different and unique in one or many ways. Sometimes it becomes difficult to handle the differences, a situation that leads to unintentional war and conflict. People are different in terms of gender orientation, culture, physical structure of the body, health condition, education, knowledge, religion, race and behavior among others. Understanding the principle of diversity and accepting as well as appreciating uniqueness of every person is best way to ensure harmonious and constructive survival with different people.

Definition of cultural diversity

Cultural diversity otherwise called cultural pluralism refers to the existence within a society of various cultures, races, religions, ethnic groups and other distinct groups with each practicing different lifestyle and values.

Part 1

1) Personally witnessed discrimination and heard narrations about history of discrimination and effects within America. Cultural background nearly instigated to involve in discrimination along the lines of diversity, but humbled by professional advice.

2) Personal contact with people of diversity and experiences gained relating and working with the people of diversity.

3) The impacts of the experiences gained concerning ways to deal and relate with people of diversity.

a) Discipline

b) Love

c) Care

d) Understanding

e) Persevering

f) Appreciating

4) Personal biases

a. Perfectionism

Can lead into denying client to exhaust their efforts in performing activities or duties.

b. Prejudgment

Can lead into limiting or restricting thinking capacity of a clientele.

c. Ascent

Can lead incessant correction of client.

Can lead to misunderstanding a client.

5) Meaning of diversity.

a) Experiences with people of diversity.

b) Impacts of relating with people of diversity.

c) Personal biases and impact on therapeutic process. ­

6) Conclusion

Part 2

1) The meaning of subtle racist

A person who likes discriminating on others in indirect manner that with intention to conceal the reason behind or intent behind certain racist acts.

2) Existence of differences in values and perceptions among members of same ethnic group.

3) Relationship and level of exposure to members of other ethnic groups.

4) Personal experiences with relating to other people.

5) Level of social knowledge exhibited by each individual.

6) Existence of specific stereotypes towards other people of diversity.

Part 3

1) Importance of codes of ethics of ACA and NAADAC in effective therapeutic and counseling work.

2) Lessons learnt on cultural sensitivity in planning of treatment.

3) Differences in communication styles as employed in different cultures

4) Techniques of building rapport for different cultures.

Compose a 1750 words assignment on crime and human nature. Needs to be plagiarism free! Compose a 1750 words assignment on crime and human nature. Needs to be plagiarism free! Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s “The Subculture of Violence” make equally valuable, but different contributions to the study of criminology.&nbsp. In their work, the authors explain the theory of criminology and its purpose in social control and examine various approaches to the study of criminal behavior.&nbsp. Wolfgang and Ferracuti offer explanations for the factors that drive homicide and other forms of violent criminal conduct. Ultimately the authors provide a generalized concept of the subculture of violence. Wilson and Hernstein’s “Crime and Human Nature” Wilson and Hernstein argue that many of the theories that explain criminal behavior are based on erroneous conclusions (Wilson and Hernstein 41).&nbsp. For example, theorizing that economic difficulties increase the incidents of crime can encourage expectation of increased crime during “economic recessions” but will at the same time direct attention away from the possibility that “prosperity” could increase criminal conduct by loosening “social bonds” (Wilson and Hernstein 41).&nbsp. The fact is, there is a number of factors that influence individual behavior and any realistic approach to theories in criminology must take account of the different factors that drive “individual decisions” (Wilson and Hernstein 42). It is against this background that Wilson and Hernstein bring together most of what has been gleaned from the practice of criminal justice and academic discourse such as economics, sociology, psychology, and philosophy and apply this information to ascertain the underlying contributing factors to crime.&nbsp. The authors then come to the conclusion that there are three root causes of crime.&nbsp. By looking at the statistics on the young male population, Wilson and Hernstein come to the conclusion that boys with low intelligence and anger problems are predisposed to commit crimes.&nbsp. It, therefore, follows that if boys fitting that criteria increase among the population, an increase in criminal conduct will follow.&nbsp. Show more

Compose a 1750 words assignment on crime and human nature.

Compose a 1750 words assignment on crime and human nature. Needs to be plagiarism free! Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s “The Subculture of Violence” make equally valuable, but different contributions to the study of criminology.&nbsp. In their work, the authors explain the theory of criminology and its purpose in social control and examine various approaches to the study of criminal behavior.&nbsp. Wolfgang and Ferracuti offer explanations for the factors that drive homicide and other forms of violent criminal conduct. Ultimately the authors provide a generalized concept of the subculture of violence.

Wilson and Hernstein’s “Crime and Human Nature”

Wilson and Hernstein argue that many of the theories that explain criminal behavior are based on erroneous conclusions (Wilson and Hernstein 41).&nbsp. For example, theorizing that economic difficulties increase the incidents of crime can encourage expectation of increased crime during “economic recessions” but will at the same time direct attention away from the possibility that “prosperity” could increase criminal conduct by loosening “social bonds” (Wilson and Hernstein 41).&nbsp. The fact is, there is a number of factors that influence individual behavior and any realistic approach to theories in criminology must take account of the different factors that drive “individual decisions” (Wilson and Hernstein 42).

It is against this background that Wilson and Hernstein bring together most of what has been gleaned from the practice of criminal justice and academic discourse such as economics, sociology, psychology, and philosophy and apply this information to ascertain the underlying contributing factors to crime.&nbsp. The authors then come to the conclusion that there are three root causes of crime.&nbsp.

By looking at the statistics on the young male population, Wilson and Hernstein come to the conclusion that boys with low intelligence and anger problems are predisposed to commit crimes.&nbsp. It, therefore, follows that if boys fitting that criteria increase among the population, an increase in criminal conduct will follow.&nbsp.

funded by the Nuffield Foundation

funded by the Nuffield Foundation

This project was funded by the Nuffield Foundation, but the views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Foundation.
Once the researcher returns from their data collection in the field they are ready to address their
research questions and hypotheses through a presentation of relevant data. Presenting data
involves the use of a variety of different graphical techniques to visually show the reader the
relationship between different data sets, to emphasise the nature of a particular aspect of the data
or to geographically ‘place’ data appropriately on a map. The data presentation section is
commonly written up at the same time, and alongside, the performance of data analysis (Section
4 of this guide). It is highly likely that it will make sense to analyse some data before it is presented
graphically and vice versa.
Data presentation is not just used to make your Independent Investigation look more aesthetically
pleasing – though good data presentation will also make the reading of the results more interesting
to the reader. Instead, the primary reason for extracting the relevant data from your results and
presenting it is to demonstrate to the reader and marker of your study that you can select the data
most appropriate for answering your research questions and graphically work with the data to allow
it to highlight its own inherent correlations and relationships. While a comprehensive data table that
stretches for many pages may technically do the same thing, leaving the reader to try to ‘find’ the
relevant data amongst a jumble of numbers is a sign of poor research practice. It is a good idea
instead to structure your data presentation with your research questions in mind. Each one can be
addressed in turn, with the appropriate data extracted and presented.
Readers and markers of your study will expect to see the use of a variety of data presentation
techniques which are being used appropriately – not just for the sake of adding different ways of
looking at the data. Putting every piece of data you have into a pie chart, histogram or scatter
graph is not only boring for the reader and demonstrates a lack of imagination in the researcher
and an inappropriate use of techniques, but also shows a lack of understanding of the benefits of
using one data presentation technique over another. Bar charts for example may not be
appropriate for showing a particular type of data. Simply typing the data into a spreadsheet
package such as Microsoft Excel and selecting one of their generic data presentation techniques
may illustrate that the researcher has not thought about the unique nature of the data and the
research questions they are trying to answer.

Section 3 –
Data Presentation

AssignmentTutorOnline

It is important to ensure that the technique used to present the data is appropriate for the data in
question. For example, if the researcher is trying to show the spatial relationship between a series
of sites and correlating numerical data, they may wish to explore the use of GIS in their
presentation. Equally if two sets of data are collected in such a way that the researcher is trying to
show a correlation between them, it may be advisable to draw this as a scatter graph, so that a line
of best fit may be drawn, allowing the researcher to comment on the strength of the correlation. If
the data collected is able to be converted into a percentage of a whole, a bar chart may not be the
best way to show the data. Instead, a pie chart or a percentage bar may more easily show the
relative size of each of the categories compared to each other. It is important to consider the type
of data you are dealing with: continuous and discrete data lend themselves more easily to some
data presentation techniques than others.
More sophisticated techniques are likely to place your Independent Investigation in a higher
marks level and the use of original data presentation, designed by you, is also encouraged.
However, it is also important to remember that sophisticated techniques do not necessarily have to
be complicated: the key to a good data presentation technique is that it is easily readable by the
person marking your report. The use of GIS in your data presentation is also strongly encouraged if
any type of spatial data is needed to answer the research questions.
Good data presentation can easily be let down by the inaccurate execution of the technique itself.
Not giving a scale, or not labelling an axis can mean that the reader is not able to actually
understand what the data is showing. Allowing someone not familiar with the data in question to
‘read’ the data presentation critically may help the researcher to avoid these types of errors before
the report is submitted.
Common Pitfalls:
• Presenting data that has nothing to do with a research question. If the data does not
have a role in the answering of the main aims of the study then it should be ignored, even if
a lot of time was spent collecting that particular set of data.
• Presenting only some of data. If you think you will want to draw conclusions from it or
refer to the data in some supportive way, it must be presented.
• Using inappropriate and generic data presentation techniques. Selecting a data
presentation technique simply from a drop down menu in a computer-based spreadsheet
shows a lack of imagination and there is a danger that a poor selection will result in
demonstrating a lack of understanding of the complexity of the data in question.
• Using a data presentation technique which is inappropriate for the data itself. Think
carefully about the type of data (continuous or discrete) and whether the technique you
have chosen is appropriate for that type of data.
• Using the same data presentation technique more than once. Show some imagination
and try to come up with an original data presentation technique, unique to your particular
data.
• Combining more than one data presentation together. Remember, the ultimate aim is to
make the data, patterns and relationships easy to see, not to create confusion for the
reader.
• Presenting the same piece of data more than once. This can waste time and effort –
choose the most appropriate technique only. If that technique does not show everything
you want it to, it is not the right technique to use.
• Using techniques in an inaccurate fashion. Spend time checking that you have labelled
keys and axes appropriately – marks can be easily lost without these checks.
______________________________________________________________________________

BSBITU306 Design and produce business

BSBITU306 Design and produce business

FNS40615_ BSBITU306 Learner Guide V1.0 REAA: Released July 2019
Page 1 of 35
BSBITU306 Design and produce business
documents
Learner Guide
FNS40615_ BSBITU306 Learner Guide V1.0 REAA: Released July 2019
Page 2 of 35

Learner Guide BSBITU306 Design and produce business documents
Unit Description This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to design and produce various
business documents and publications. It includes selecting and using a range of
functions on a variety of computer applications.
Target Group It applies to individuals who possess fundamental skills in computer operations and
keyboarding. They may exercise discretion and judgement using appropriate
theoretical knowledge of document design and production to provide technical advice
and support to a team.
Learning Outcomes By the end of this unit, students will be able to:
® Select and prepare resources
® Design document
® Produce document
® Finalise document

AssignmentTutorOnline

Purpose of this Learner Guide
This Learner Guide provides students with guided and referenced study notes to assist student
learning of the competency unit requirements. When completed, this Learner Guide, along with
tutor provided support material and your own research will combine to represent a continuous body
of evidence of the work you have done and the skills you have learned.
The study notes provided in this Learner Guide are structured as follows:
• Learning Outcome and Performance Criteria reference
o Study Notes
§ Worked examples
§ Learning activities (formative)
• Practice questions
Students are required to access relevant Competency Unit outlines within their course to understand
the entire unit requirements. Students are required to read all notes and worked examples provided
and supplement these notes with tutor provided support material and own research where required.
It is highly recommended that students self-check their own learning of performance criteria by
completing all learning activities (answering in the spaces provided), checking own answers with the
answers provided at the end of the Learner Guide and asking for assistance as required.
Learner Guide support material
The source references noted in the Learner Guide provide a good starting point for the student to
undertake their own research by accessing full articles and reports to extend their reading.
NOTE: The Learner Guide study notes are not provided to be definitive but as a guide. Students are
required to supplement Learner Guide notes with their own research.
FNS40615_ BSBITU306 Learner Guide V1.0 REAA: Released July 2019
Page 3 of 35
Content
1. Select and prepare resources ………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.1 Select and use appropriate technology and software applications to produce required business
documents …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.2 Select layout and style of publication according to information and organisational
requirements ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.3 Ensure document design is consistent with company and/or client requirements, using basic
design principles …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.4 Discuss and clarify format and style with person requesting document/publication …………… 10
Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint …………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
2. Design document …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.1 Identify, open and generate files and records according to task and organisational
requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.2 Design document to ensure efficient entry of information and to maximise the presentation
and appearance of information ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
2.3 Use a range of functions to ensure consistency of design and layout ……………………………….. 19
2.4 Operate input devices within designated requirements ………………………………………………… 19
3. Produce documents ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.1 Complete document production within designated timelines according to organisational
requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.2 Check document produced to ensure it meets task requirements for style and layout …………. 21
3.3 Store document appropriately and save document to avoid loss of data ………………………….. 22
3.4 Use manuals, training booklets and/or help-desks to overcome basic difficulties with document
design and production ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
4. Finalise document ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
4.1 Proofread document for readability, accuracy and consistency of language, style and layout
prior to final output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
4.2 Make any modifications to document to meet requirements …………………………………………. 26
4.3 Name and store document in accordance with organisational requirements and exit the
application without data/loss damage ……………………………………………………………………………… 27
4.4 Print and present document according to requirements ……………………………………………….. 30
Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint …………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
Unit Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint ………………………………………………………………………. 32
Activity Answers …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
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The focus of this Learner Guide is on documents designed and produced in Microsoft products,
specifically Microsoft Word (given it is widely used in business today).
Your organisation may use other software products that are generally available or that have been
built specifically for your organisation.
In addition to the Learner Guide you are encouraged to make yourself familiar with how to design
and produce business documents in any other software that you are required to use to perform your
role.
1. Select and prepare resources
Businesses require the production and finalisation of various types of business documents. For the
variety of business documents generated in mortgage broking businesses today there are many
software and technology alternatives that can be used. Section 1 of this Learner Guide will help you
develop the knowledge to determine the most appropriate technology for the document you need
to produce.
1.1 Select and use appropriate technology and software applications to produce
required business documents
Technology
Some of the technology that may be available to you in your organisation could include:
® Printers
® Scanners
® Computers
® Photocopiers.
Workplace Reflection A
Can you identify other technology used in your workplace?
Note: you should be aware of the safety procedures and potential hazards that surround the use of
the technological equipment you use. You should read the instructions, operator manuals provided
with the equipment prior to operating them. Manuals outline the equipment, the functions and how
to use them.
Software
Some examples of software may include:
® Word processing packages (e.g. Microsoft Word)
® Spreadsheet packages (e.g. Microsoft Excel)
® Database packages (e.g. Microsoft Access)
® Accounting packages (e.g. QuickBooks, MYOB)
® Design packages (e.g. Microsoft Publisher)
® Picture creation and editing packages (e.g. Microsoft paint)
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® Photo editing software (e.g. Adobe Photoshop).
Deciding what technology and what software is best used for different sorts of tasks requires
learning what is available and the best fit for purpose.
Workplace Reflection B
Read the list below and tick the tasks which you carry out at work or in your personal life.
Next to each task write the software application you would use.

Task Tick Software application
Writing a letter or report
Printing documents
Performing a mail merge
Performing calculations in tables
and worksheets
Producing tables and graphics
Sending an email
Preparing mailing labels
Adding data to a database

Types of business documents
The range of business documents that you produce will depend on your role and the organisation
you work for, but could include:
® Business reports (numeric)
® Business reports (analysis, specialist reports, recommendations, business cases)
® Presentations
® Emails
® Letters
® Memos
® Training manuals
® Agendas
® Minutes of meetings
® Flyers
® Labels and envelopes.
When you produce a document, it is important to know what you are required to do, what the
document is going to be used for, who is going to receive it, as well as any organisational policies
that you must follow in the document design.
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Following the basic document design principles detailed later in section 1 will assist you to cover
these elements of document production. In section 2 and 3 of this Learner Guide, we will cover some
of the key aspects of MS Word to produce business documents.
Practice Activity 1
Now complete Practice Activity 1: Purpose of documents, located in the Additional
Resources folder.
Practice Activity 2
Now complete Practice Activity 2: Document format, located in the Additional
Resources folder.
1.2 Select layout and style of publication according to information and
organisational requirements
Layout and style of business documents
The layout and style of business documents are likely to be guided by organisational requirements;
these requirements may well be detailed in a ‘style guide’ or similar document. These requirements
are likely to specify how to use the company logo (dimensions, colours etc.), the use of certain fonts,
company colour schemes, templates, required detail in headers and footers, punctuation style,
abbreviations, and document naming conventions to name a few.
The purpose of a style guide is to ensure consistency in communications, and assists in maintaining
integrity of the company identity and corporate image.
Workplace Reflection C
Find out if your organisation has a style guide or a document that indicates how business documents
should be presented.
Now review the KwikKopy Style Guide, located in the Additional Resources folder
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1.3 Ensure document design is consistent with company and/or client requirements,
using basic design principles
Basic document design principles
The following 9 steps will support you in creating well-designed and understandable documents.
Following these steps each time you design a document, will help you create the best and most
effective business document you can.
Document style
It is worth remembering when choosing the style for a document, you should:
® Use white space to separate and emphasise points.
® Ensure that spelling, grammar and punctuation are consistent and accurate as errors can
detract from the message.
Step 1 Know
who you are
writing to
What is the
background of the
intended audience?
What does the
audience know
already?
What is the
audience’s attitude
to what you are
writing about?
Is there anyone
other than the
audience who may
read what you
write?
Step 2 Know
why you are
writing
What do you want the
audience to know or
understand after reading
the document?
What do you want the
audience to do after
reading the document?
Step 3 Choose
your ideas
Based on the responses to the
questions in steps 1 + 2, select and
list ideas you need to include to
achieve the purpose with the
audience.
Step 4 Decide
on the order
This should be based on the order
your audience needs them or
following organisation standards.
Step 5
Decide on
the format
Design your document in a
way that will best reveal
the content to the audience
and meets organisational
requirements.
Remember that good
design is not about your
personal preferences
Good design is to
communicate the purpose
or idea, so your audience
must be taken into account
when completing this step.
Step 6 Choose
the style
How you say what you say should be
appropriate to your audience.
Step 7 Draft
your
document
Your draft should be focused on the
audience and purpose.
Step 8 Edit
and proof
read your
document
Check spelling Check
punctuation
Check
sentence
construction
and flow.
Step 9 Finalise
document
Print and file according to organisation
guidelines.
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® Choose the right font style and size. Fonts fall into two main categories serif and sans serif –
sans serif are plain letters; serif fonts have small curves on each letter. Choose the right font
for your document and the message you are conveying to your audience. Remember to
check your style guide for font preferences in your organisation.
® Use graphics and illustrations carefully and sparingly.
® Eliminate clutter by keeping paragraphs and sentences shorter.
® Use headings and subheadings and make them stand out by increasing font size and/or using
bold text.
® Use bulleted and/or numbered lists.
We will now examine in a little more detail two types of business documents being letters and
reports.
Letters – styles and formats
Letters are generally produced using word processing software.
Letters are usually typed using the fully blocked style (which means all typing is aligned to the lefthand side of the page) with either open or mixed punctuation. Open punctuation is where all
punctuation outside the body of the letter is omitted, mixed punctuation on the other hand is where
there is a comma after the salutation and close.
Business letters usually contain the following parts:
® Date
® Inside address
® Formal opening/salutation
® Subject line
® Body of letter
® Close
® Signature and senders name and role title.
Refer to the following website to review examples of business letters
https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/business-letter-format-and-example
Practice Activity 3
Now complete Practice Activity 3: Document format, located in the Additional
Resources folder.
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Business reports
Reports are a common way of presenting more complex information. A well-structured, concise
report with a clear purpose is more likely to be readable and persuade readers to accept the report’s
recommendations and findings.
Style and format
A common structure for a report is indicated by the following:
® Title
® Table of contents*
® Executive summary*
® Introduction
® Body of report – divided into sections
® Summary and conclusion
® Recommendations
® Appendix (if necessary)
*Omit if writing a short report.
Structuring a report
To help make a report more readable it can be useful to distinguish different heading levels with font
size, style and, if required, a numbering system.
In Microsoft Word, you can select heading levels using the styles toolbar.
To modify a style right click on the style and select modify. You can then select the required style for
your report headings.
The Outline function in Word is a useful feature as this shows the outline of your report allowing you
to arrange your report in a hierarchy.
To use this function, select the view tab and outline command in the document views toolbar.
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To change the heading levels in outline view you need to:
® Open the word document
® Click the View tab
® From the Document Views group click Outline
® Select the desired heading
® From the ‘Show Level’ drop down box select the appropriate level
When you are writing a document such as a report, multiple headings can assist with structuring and
therefore make it easier for the audience to read.
The conclusion section incorporates your main findings or outcomes. Make sure they are brief and
contain recommendations that help your audience know what it is they need to consider and make
decisions about. Alternately, the same purpose can be achieved by having an executive summary at
the start of the document.
An executive summary is positioned at the front of a report and should provide the reader with an
overview of the report’s essential information. Key elements of an executive summary include an
explanation of the background, any research, discussion and important findings. It should be written
in such a way that it can be read alone without the accompanying report; therefore, it needs to be
sufficient in detail to be understood in isolation. An executive summary is usually written once the
main body of the report is completed, and would generally be between two or three hundred words
in length (no more than one page of A4).
Finally, as with the preparation of all documents, it is important to ensure that what you have
written is correct and reads well, so ideally get someone with a critical eye to review your draft
report.
Workplace Reflection D
What reports do you create or provide input to in your role? What is the purpose of the report? Who
is the audience? How is the data gathered?
1.4 Discuss and clarify format and style with person requesting
document/publication
Communication
When creating a business document for another person/s, effective communication is essential to
ensure that the resulting document meets their needs.
This can be achieved by the use of effective listening, questioning and applying problem solving
skills through the document design and production processes.
It is helpful to clarify information (both given and provided) to ensure that everyone understands
and is ‘on the same page’.
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Techniques for clarifying include asking questions to confirm or paraphrase information, for
example:
® Are you saying that…?
® Do you mean…?
® Do you want me to…?
® So, you are saying…?
You can also use clarification questions some examples of this type of questioning are listed below:
® Can you be more specific?
® Why do you think that?
® Can you share some examples?
® What do you really mean?
® Can you clarify that for me?
Taking notes and following up any agreements and discussions in writing is another useful approach.
Using these techniques will assist you to be clear and help you to better understand the needs of the
person requesting the document or publication.
Workplace Reflection E
What methods do you or could you use to clarify information?
Now review the Style Examples located in the Additional Resources folder (Examples
sub-folder)
Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint
Now that you have read through this section please attempt the following questions to self-check
your knowledge acquired to this point. Should you identify any knowledge and/or skill gaps, link
back to relevant sections of this Learner Guide. If you require further assistance, please contact your
tutor.
Activity 1
1.1 Explain why it is important to select the most appropriate software or piece of technology to
complete a task. Give examples in your answer.
1.2 Explain why it is useful to follow basic document design principles when designing and producing
any business document.
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2. Design document
As detailed in section 1, there are various different software applications to perform a number of
business tasks and for creating business documents. These include generic word processing,
spreadsheets, email, and presentation software. In addition, there is often company or industry
specific software. For instance, many licensees will provide Customer/Client Relationship
Management (CRM) software for their mortgage brokers which have templates for generating
standard form letters to clients.
Regardless of the software application, there are some similarities in how electronic files are handled,
and all applications provide menu options (or commands) for opening new and existing files.
For the purposes of this Learner Guide the references all relate to Microsoft products, given these
are readily available in most workplaces. If you use other software applications in your workplace
you should locate the user guides and training manuals for these products.
2.1 Identify, open and generate files and records according to task and
organisational requirements
Creating a new file
To create a new file, you firstly need to open the software you intend to create the file in and then
use the file menu options which are usually in the top menu bar.
Creating a new file in Microsoft Word
To create a new file in Word simply access Word and a new blank document will be automatically
created ready for you to use. The screen that you will be able to view will look similar to the one
shown below:
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Opening an existing file
To open an existing file, you can use Windows Explorer (which is the file manager application in the
Microsoft Windows operating system) to locate the file and it will automatically open the selected
file in the correct software.
To open an existing file in Word you click on the Microsoft Office button and then select open.
Alternatively, you can use the quick access toolbar. The quick access toolbar provides you with
access to commands you frequently use. By default, Save, Undo and Redo appear on the quick
access toolbar, these are shown below.
You can customise the quick access toolbar by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right-hand
side, see below. You can choose to include any of the following (and more) commands on your quick
access toolbar:
® New
® Open
® Email
® Quick Print
® Print Preview
® Spelling and Grammar
® Draw Table
Workplace Reflection F
Now practice by:
® Opening an existing file, you have saved in Microsoft Word.
® Creating a new file in Microsoft Excel.
It is important to check your own organisational requirements in terms of opening, generating and
storing files, as there may be requirements to include certain items in all documents (e.g. logos,
company slogans, headers, privacy statements, footers, etc.).
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2.2 Design document to ensure efficient entry of information and to maximise the
presentation and appearance of information
In all software applications, there are a number of functions and formatting features that you can
use to ensure consistency of design and layout.
The term ‘function’ refers to items such as spell check, table formatting, mail merge, autocorrect,
document view, word count plus many other functions. Formatting refers to actions such as:
® Selecting appropriate font
® Setting up the page including margins
® Using the features such as page numbers.
Your organisation may have set guidelines (or style guide) on how documents must be formatted e.g.
invoices, company letters etc. Most software applications have a formatting toolbar which helps you
select formatting options quickly and easily, particularly those tools which you use most frequently
such as font type, size paragraph formatting.
In Microsoft Word, the formatting text tool bar is illustrated using the images below.
Formatted text is a way of making your document more appealing to the reader; formatted text can
draw your attention to specific parts of the document to help communicate your message.
To format font size and style select the text you want to modify and select font size and style.
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To use bold italic or underline again, select the text you wish to modify and use the command in the
font group. It is also in this group of commands that you can change colour of text.
To change the case of text, click the change case command in the font toolbar and select one of the
options provided.
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To change the alignment of text, use the paragraph group and alignment options:
® Align text left – Aligns all selected text to the left margin
® Centre – Aligns all selected text at an equal distance from the left and the right margins
® Align text right – Aligns all selected text to the right margin
® Justify – Justified text is equal on both sides and lines up equally to the left and right-hand
margins.
Keyboard commands are also a quick way to format.
Consult the software manual or online help for more information about functions and formatting.
Otherwise ask someone in your office for assistance.
In addition to the formatting features in Word there are some very useful functions that can assist
you design and produce effective business documents. For the purposes of this Learner Guide we
will look at inserting headers and footers and working with tables. To learn more about other
formatting features you should access the information sources available to you in your organisation.
Headers and footers
You can make a document look professional by the use of headers and footers. The header section
is in the top margin while the footer is a section of the document that appears in the bottom margin.
Headers and footers generally contain information such as the document name, company names
and/or logo’s, page numbers, file path, date and time created etc.
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To insert a header and/or footer
® Select the insert tab
® Click either the header or footer command – a menu will appear with a list of built in options
that you can choose.
® Left click on one of the options or choose a blank option and enter the information you would
like to appear in your document.
There are many other header and footer options that you can use in your documents. From the
Header and Footer Tools Design tab you can see all of your options.
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Tables in Word
Tables can be a useful method to present text information and numerical data. To insert a table into
your document:
® Place your insertion point in the document where you want the table to appear
® Select the insert tab
® Click the table command
® Drag your mouse over the diagram squares to select the number of columns and rows
needed in the table
® Left click your mouse and the table will appear in the document
® Enter information into the table.
Once you have selected the table a Table Tools Design tab will appear. You can then select the
Design tab to access all the Table Styles and Options in order to apply a style to a table.
To modify a table, you can use the Design and Layout tools that appear under Table Tools when the
table is selected. Using this function, you can add rows and columns, change cell size, change text
direction, merging and splitting cells and more.
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Practice Activity 4
Now complete Practice Activity 4: Create a new Word document, located in the
Additional Resources folder.
2.3 Use a range of functions to ensure consistency of design and layout
In order to apply your learning so far, the next practice activity requires you to work through a case
study. To complete the case study practice activity, you will select the appropriate software for the
document you are required to create and conform to the provided style guide. This will assist you to
practice consistency in design and layout of a document.
Practice Activity 5
Now complete Practice Activity 5: Design and produce a document, located in the
Additional Resources folder.
2.4 Operate input devices within designated requirements
An input device for a computer allows you to enter information. The most fundamental pieces of
information are keystrokes on a keyboard and clicks with a mouse. These two input devices are
essential for a user to interact with a computer.
Many other input devices exist for entering other types of information, such as images, audio and
video. Input devices represent one type of computer peripheral – the other two types are output
devices and storage devices.
A keyboard is the most fundamental input device for any computer system. In the early days of
computing, it was typically the only input device. A keyboard contains keys for letters and numbers
as well as for specialized tasks, such as Enter, Delete, etc.
Typical keyboard for a desktop computer
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When operating systems started to use graphical user interface (GUI),
the mouse was developed as a pointing device. Typically, a mouse
resides on a flat surface, and by moving the mouse, you can move the
pointer on the screen. One or more buttons on the mouse allow you to
enter instructions by clicking. Most models also include a wheel for
scrolling.
Typical mouse for a desktop computer
Desktop computers have a separate keyboard and mouse, but for
laptops, these are integrated into a computer system itself. In laptops,
the mouse is actually substituted with a touchpad or trackpad. This is a
specialized surface that follows the motion of your finger. You can still
connect an external mouse to a laptop if you prefer.
Keyboard and trackpad on a laptop computer
Another common input device is an image scanner. A typical desktop or
flatbed scanner is a device that optically scans printed images and paper
documents and converts them into digital images. In most scanners, you
place the document on a glass plate and place an opaque cover over it. A
bright light moves across the image, and the reflection is captured by a
sensor, which converts the document to a digital image.
Flatbed scanner
Audio and video can be recorded using a microphone and video camera, respectively. Due to the
popularity of video conferencing using services like Skype, these are now typically integrated in
most laptops and monitor displays for desktops; however, you can also connect an external webcam,
which can record both audio and video.
Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint
Activity 2
2.1 Explain the steps you would take to change the size and font type in a Word document.
2.2 Explain the steps you would take to change the style of a table in a Word document.
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3. Produce documents
3.1 Complete document production within designated timelines according to
organisational requirements
To ensure you produce a business document on by the due date, you need to manage your time
according to the set deadlines. So, once you are aware of your deadline, you will need to develop a
‘plan’ to keep you on track to deliver to the agreed timeline.
A plan is a method or ‘road map’ that helps you to:
® Schedule your time and resources
® Stop wasting effort on unimportant tasks that distract you from reaching the deadline goal
® Allow time for the unexpected for example technology or software problems.
It’s important to prioritise all tasks. This can be achieved by firstly identifying the most urgent tasks,
and/or those tasks which have interdependencies that other tasks rely on.
If you are completing a business document with other staff members, it’s important that you
communicate with all the staff members involved and share information. During the document
production, you should monitor that you are on track to achieve your deadline and to achieve what
you set out to do.
To achieve this, you may consider using a Task List to assist you complete your project.
An example of a simple table has been provided below. T
his will assist you in managing and keeping track of all the documents you are required to produce
and by when. It will also allow you to identify issues and discuss these with your
manager/stakeholders to achieve resolution/guidance.

Task List: Date/time period
Date Task description Estimated hours Comments
Enter details here…

3.2 Check document produced to ensure it meets task requirements for style and
layout
It’s important to check your produced document against the initial requirements to ensure that it
meets all the stated needs and organisational requirements.
To complete this check, you should:
® Review your brief and double check that you have completed the task according to the brief.
® Use the spelling and grammar tool in Word to check your document.
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Errors in spelling and grammar are indicated by coloured wavy lines.
® The blue line indicates a contextual spelling error. A contextual spelling error is when the
incorrect spelling of a word is chosen, for example the wrong use of ‘deer’ at the start of a
letter, rather than ‘dear’.
® The red line indicates an incorrectly spelt word.
® The green line indicates a grammar error.
Practice Activity 6
Now complete Practice Activity 6: Style Guide, located in the Additional Resources
folder.
3.3 Store document appropriately and save document to avoid loss of data
Saving files
It’s good to get into the habit of continuously saving your work. Also, remember to do this before
you close any files you are working on and when you leave your desk. This will save you from
heartache should something happen to the application/file you are working in.
Most software applications are programmed to automatically save open files and this occurs after a
certain amount of time has elapsed. Your work can be saved in a number of different ways
depending on which software application you are using.
The user guide or online help will provide step by step instructions on how to save your document;
however, as a quick guide, documents can be saved by:
® Clicking on the save icon on the quick access toolbar
® Using the office button and clicking save
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® clicking on the save icon on the quick access toolbar
Or
® Using the save shortcut keys – Ctrl + S on your keyboard. Once edits have been made and
saved, a file can be closed. Closing a file is a simple process using similar options to those
above
® Using the office button and the close commander clicking on the x close icon on the righthand side of the menu bar and responding yes to save changes.
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3.4 Use manuals, training booklets and/or help-desks to overcome basic difficulties
with document design and production
Help and support for software and technology
Organisations vary significantly in terms of the amount of training and support they offer to their
staff for technology and software. The online help function on software applications prove to be
useful and answer most user questions – consider these as your first port of call for any issues.
In your organisation, there may also be a technical help such as an IT Helpdesk, which you can ask
for support from. Another great source of information that is often overlooked is – your
colleagues/team members.
Workplace Reflection G
Identify the support that is available in your organisation for technology and software related
questions. Consult with your manager, if applicable.
Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint
Activity 3
1.1 Explain why and how you should check a document prior to completion.
1.2 Describe two methods to save a document in Word.
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4. Finalise document
4.1 Proofread document for readability, accuracy and consistency of language, style
and layout prior to final output
Proofreading is the final and essential check that must be undertaken prior to a document being
considered complete.
Proofreading means examining your document to find and correct spelling, mistakes in grammar,
style, layout and omissions.
Consider these tips when you proofread:
® Read from a printout rather than the screen.
® Read aloud or sound out words in your head.
® Use the search function to find mistakes you are likely to make.
® Conduct a spell check – spell check on the computer is a useful function however it’s
important not just to rely on this.
® Conduct a grammar and punctuation check – again don’t just rely on the grammar checker in
the software as they do not catch everything.
® Read slowly, don’t skim over words.
® Have a colleague review the document for you; a fresh pair of eyes can often spot things that
you haven’t noticed as different people see different things. Someone else is more likely to
pick up something like this – ‘to many people’ and ‘too many people’ are both equally valid
but in totally different contexts.
® If time permits proofread once and then leave a little time and proofread again later.
Also, take time to read the “Proofreading your work” document located in the
Supporting Documents folder, as it provides further tips and ideas.
“Proofread for spelling errors: spell check read the following as correct. It’s not.
‘Spell Chequer Pome’
I have a spelling chequer
It came with my PC
It clearly marks for my revue
Mistakes I cannot sea
I’ve run this pome threw it
I’m shore your please to no
Its letter perfect in its weigh
My chequer told me sew.”
(Extract: https://www.flinders.edu.au/slc_files/Documents/Blue%20Guides/Editing%20and%20Proofreading.pdf)
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4.2 Make any modifications to document to meet requirements
Modifications to a document’s existing information, style or layout can be made at any time by using
standard keyboard features and many of the features in the home tab in Word.
Word also offers a track changes feature.
Track changes is a great feature of Word that allows you to see what changes have been made on a
document. The track changes commands are found on the reviewing tab.
To begin track changes
® Click review tab
® Click track changes
® Make the changes to your document and you will see any changes you have made
Document views
There are four ways to view a document after you have tracked changes:
® Final show up marking – this shows the document with the changes made.
® Final – this shows the changed document without the changes made.
® Original show up marking – this shows the original document with the changes displayed.
® Original – this shows the original document without any changes.
To change the view, click the appropriate choice in the tracking group of commands.
When you view the changes in a document you can either chose to accept or reject the changes. This
allows you to review the document by each change.
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4.3 Name and store document in accordance with organisational requirements and
exit the application without data/loss damage
Correctly storing documents is an important task for all employees in an organisation – it’s important
to aid the efficient retrieval of documentation and to ensure that files are stored according to
organisation requirements. Organisation data files are generally stored on the computer’s hard
drive or on the organisation’s network in specified folders, the same way that paper files are stored
in folders in a filing cabinet.
It is also important to be aware of the security procedures you need to follow in relation to the
storage of documents. If a document is ‘confidential’, you should take care not to leave copies on
the printer or photocopier. The document should have confidential clearly marked on it as a
watermark.
You can add a watermark to a Word document by completing the following steps:
® Click the Page Layout tab
® Click the Watermark command in the Page Background group.
® Select Confidential from those provided.
If a document is to be secure, then you need to set up a password access to the file or folder.
You can set your document so that it has a password to view or modify it by completing the
following steps:
® Click the Microsoft Office button and select Save As
® Click tools and then general options
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® You can type a Password to open or Password to modify
® Click ok.
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Workplace Reflection H
Find out about your organisation’s procedure for handling confidential documents.
Practice Activity 7
Now complete Practice Activity 7: Set a password for the file, located in the Additional
Resources folder
Filenames
All files are given a file name when they are saved.
The naming of files (file naming convention) is very important because this will help you to organise
your files logically for easy retrieval.
When you create a file name, follow these rules:
® A file name must be unique, i.e. no two files can have the same name.
® A file name should be meaningful, so try to use file names that will assist you when searching
for the content at a later date.
® A file name may have two parts, the file name and a file extension.
o The file name can be up to 254 characters long. The file extension is usually three
characters long.
o The file name and file name extension are separated by a dot (.). Some software
applications will create a default file name extension if one is not specified.
File naming in your workplace
Many files names may also include a code that is relevant to a client, department and/or
organisation. By knowing the file naming convention/s in your workplace and following them, will
help everyone to share files and work efficiently.
Example 2
Now review Example 2: Naming folders and files, located in the Additional Resources
(Examples) folder
Workplace Reflection I
Find out if there are any file naming conventions in your workplace?
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If not, do you think that this could be introduced? Would this be useful to help colleagues and
yourself locate files?
Look at documents you have saved and the file names that you have used. You may like to check
these with your manager to make sure they meet organisation requirements.
4.4 Print and present document according to requirements
Before printing a document, you should preview the parts to be printed so that you can check that
the document looks the way it is supposed to.
To do this, follow the steps below.
® Click File
® Select Print
® Select Print Preview
In Print Preview format, you can do many tasks, including:
® Modify margins
® View multiple pages
® Change the page size and orientation and more.
When you are ready to print, you need to:
® Select Print
Print dialogue box then appears. Select the print options required – for example the printer you will
be using, which pages you need to print and the number of copies.
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Further printing requirements can be chosen by selecting the options command.
Practice Activity 8
Now complete Practice Activity 8: Printing Documents, located in the Additional
Resources (Examples) folder
Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint
Activity 4
4.1 What methods can you use to save a Word Document file, such as this Learner Guide?
4.2 How do you name the file?
4.3 What support or help functions could you use to create such a document?
4.4 What techniques could you use to proofread a document?
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Unit Knowledge and Skill Checkpoint
Now that you have read through and completed the activities in all sections of the Learner Guide,
please rate your skills and knowledge acquired to this point.
Should you identify and knowledge and/or skill gaps link back to relevant Learner Guide contents.
If you require further assistance, please contact your tutor.

Skill/Knowledge area Self-rating
5 – Excellent skill and knowledge
1 – Limited skill and knowledge
Opening a file
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.
Saving a file
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.
Storing data
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.
Accessing online help
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.

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Skill/Knowledge area Self-rating
5 – Excellent skill and knowledge
1 – Limited skill and knowledge
Using various functions and formatting
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.
Printing documents
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.
Understanding the importance of
proofreading
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.
Your understanding of basic document
design
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.
Naming files
Use this section to improve result rating if you scored 3 and below by writing comments on
how to improve your understanding and/or skill.

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Activity Answers
Activity 1
1.1 Selecting the most appropriate software and/or technology for a task will assist you to produce
an effective, readable document in an efficient manner.
1.2 The basic document design principles remind you of the important steps to take when designing
a document. If these steps are overlooked it can result in a document not meeting the needs of the
intended audience.
Activity 2
2.1 To change the size and font type in a Word 2007 document you should select the font you wish to
change and go to the font tool bar and locate the style and size of font that you require.
2.2 To change the style of a table in Word 2007 you should first select the table you wish to change
and use the Design and Layout tools.
Activity 3
3.1 You should check a document prior to completion to ensure that you have met the intended brief
(including the style of the document and layout) and to ensure that the spelling and grammar is
correct.
3.2 Method 1 – use the cross in the right-hand corner of the screen and click yes to save your
document. Method 2 – use the office button and select the option save.
Activity 4
4.1 Answers should cover one of the following:
® clicking on the save icon on the quick access toolbar
or
® Using the save shortcut keys – Ctrl + S on your keyboard. Once edits have been made and
saved, a file can be closed. Closing a file is a simple process using similar options to those
above
® Using the office button and the close commander clicking on the x close icon on the righthand side of the menu bar and responding yes to save changes.
4.2 Answers will be unique, but file name should be based on the following principles:
® Uniqueness.
® A file name should be meaningful and will assist you when searching for the content at a later
date.
® A file name may have two parts, the file name and a file extension. Many files names may
also include a code that is relevant to a client, department and/or organisation.
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4.3 Answers will be unique but should cover off alternatives such as:
® The online help function on software.
® Organisational support functions such as an IT Helpdesk.
® Colleagues/team members.
4.4 Answers will be unique but should cover off alternatives such as:
® Read from a printout rather than the screen.
® Read aloud or sound out words in your head.
® Use the search function to find mistakes you are likely to make.
® Conduct a software based spell check.
® Conduct a grammar and punctuation check.
® Read slowly, don’t skim over words.
® Have a colleague review the document for you.
® If time permits proofread once and then leave a little time and proofread again later.

fully vaccinating parents Authors

fully vaccinating parents Authors

‘Hesitant Compliers’: Qualitative analysis of concerned fullyvaccinating parents
Authors
Stephanie L. Enkel1*
Katie Attwell 2,3
Thomas L. Snelling 2,4,5
Hayley E. Christian1, 6
1 School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia
2 Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, The
University of Western Australia
3 School of Social Science, The University of Western Australia
4 Menzies School of Health Research and Charles Darwin University, Darwin
5 Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Subiaco, Western Australia
6 Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia
*Address for correspondence: Stephanie Enkel, School of Population and Global Health, The
University of Western Australia, M707, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009. Email:
[email protected], Telephone: +61 431 714 896
Keywords: Immunisation, Vaccination, Vaccine Hesitancy, Qualitative, Compliance
1
Abstract
Objective: Some parents are hesitant about vaccines and yet still vaccinate their children.
Vaccine behaviours are not fixed and parents who are concerned but nonetheless adherent to
standard schedules could switch to an unconventional schedule, delaying or cherry-picking
vaccines. There is a need to better understand vaccine hesitancy in specific contexts,
acknowledging cultural and geographical variation, to ensure interventions targeting
hesitancy are well directed and received.
Methods: To identify the behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of ‘hesitant compliers’ in
Perth, Western Australia, nine one-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with
vaccinating parents of children (<5 years) who were identified as being hesitant. Interview
transcripts were analysed qualitatively and themes developed inductively, following a
constructivist paradigm.
Results: Parents saw vaccination as important for themselves and their community, despite
their limited knowledge of vaccine preventable diseases. Parents reported concerns about
potential side effects, and worried about the safety of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and
seasonal influenza vaccines. Concerned about the role of anti-vaccination information in the
community, some sought to isolate themselves from parents who did not vaccinate, although
others were concerned that this could entrench non-vaccinators’ behaviours. Parents’ views
were all underlaid by two pivotal ‘vaccine-related events’ that had occurred in the
community: the severe injury of a baby from seasonal influenza vaccination in 2010, and the
death of a baby from whooping cough in 2015.
Conclusions: Parents interpreted pivotal vaccine-related events in the community as
requiring them to take personal responsibility for vaccine decisions. Their reports of
continued vaccine fears (evident in international studies in recent decades) demonstrate that
vaccine scares have long lasting effects. With vaccine rates high and stable, current strategies
2
appear to be have little impact on addressing parental vaccine concerns. Further research is
required to determine the prevalence of hesitancy amongst vaccinating parents and identify
critical points for intervention.
Introduction
Childhood vaccination provides direct protection while also helping to maintain protection
against disease across populations through community immunity [1]. Although most people
accept vaccination as necessary, it may cause concern for varied religious, safety or political
reasons [2]. In the last decades, community concern about vaccination has grown
internationally, with debates about its safety [3] and movements against vaccination
maintaining traction in the digital age [4]. This is occurring despite efforts of healthcare
providers and policymakers to address parental anxieties both in the clinic and the
community, with recent reviews finding a lack of evidence for successful interventions in
either setting [5, 6]. Parental perceptions lie along a spectrum [7] with around one quarter of
parents categorised as ‘vaccine hesitant’ in international studies [8]. Given that vaccine
uptake internationally is high, a significant proportion of parents are accepting all
vaccinations for their children despite unease about the vaccination process. [9, 10].
The hesitancy experienced by individuals regarding vaccination can develop over time, and
parents can change their minds about vaccinating. A US study of 228 postpartum mothers
found that while 29% worried about vaccinating their infants for reasons like safety, poor
efficacy and mistrust, 96% nonetheless planned to accept recommended vaccinations [11].
Another US study found that one third of parents currently following alternative vaccine
schedules had previously adhered to the standard schedule [12]. This suggests that vaccine
behaviours are not fixed, and parents who are concerned but nonetheless adherent to standard
3
schedules could switch to an unconventional schedule, delaying or cherry-picking vaccines.
Consequently, these parents constitute an important target group for health professionals and
policymakers seeking to maintain high and stable vaccination coverage rates.
Accordingly, there is a need to better understand vaccine hesitancy in specific contexts,
acknowledging cultural and geographical variation, to ensure interventions targeting
hesitancy are well directed and received appropriately. This exploratory study fills a research
gap with regards to qualitative studies exploring parental vaccine hesitancy in Australia; we
only know of one other recent published study [13]. In seeking to provide a better
understanding of the cohort of parents who vaccinate despite concerns, we focused on the
behaviour, knowledge and attitudes of parents who self-reported compliance with the
Australian vaccine schedule despite expressing moderate concerns about childhood
vaccinations – so called ‘hesitant compliers’[14]. We conducted this study in Perth, Western
Australia (WA), which had recently been impacted upon by two pivotal events – the injury of
a baby from seasonal influenza vaccination, and the death of a baby from pertussis disease
(whooping cough). At the time of this study, vaccination in Australia was not compulsory
but was linked to federal government financial incentives. In Australia, there are seven time
points for vaccine delivery from birth to four years, plus an annual seasonal influenza
vaccine. The latter is funded in Western Australia for children under five years but is not
formally part of the national incentivised childhood vaccination schedule [15].
Methods
To collect and analyse our data exploring the views of hesitant compliers, we employed a
qualitative approach theoretically guided by the paradigm of constructivism. Constructivism
accepts the idea of multiple realities, recognising that knowledge is generated through the
4
relationship between the investigator and participant.[16] Accordingly, in-depth semistructured interviews were employed to facilitate a participant-driven discussion (see Table 1
for guide questions). We recruited parents who fit the study criteria detailed below. The study
was approved by The University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee
(RA/4/1/7447) and conducted by a trained qualitative researcher under supervision.
Purposive recruitment was conducted through the non-governmental organisation Playgroups
WA. Researchers posted study information on the Playgroups WA Facebook page, monthly
newsletter, and directly invited 97 playgroup coordinators to disseminate recruitment
information. This initial information was framed broadly as seeking the views of parents with
a child under 5 years old with regard to vaccination. Parents who responded were then
screened via email to ascertain eligibility, based upon a) currently observing the
recommended vaccination schedule for their child/ren; and b) reporting concerns or
apprehensions about vaccines or the vaccination process. Previous studies conceptualizing
parental vaccine hesitancy have used a range of questions on a range of parents to arrive at
classifications of parents as ‘hesitant,’ ‘accepting’ or elsewhere on the continuum [8, 17]. For
this study, we sought to capture hesitant parents, thus the screening technique involved
utilizing framings of concerns (also doubts, uncertainties, apprehensions) as used in existing
quantitative surveys [8, 17]. In addition to meeting the age requirements of the youngest
child, participants required English proficiency. All interviews were audio recorded with
permission, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically using NVivo 10 [18], as per
inductive inquiry methods [19]. The first author identified initial themes and coded the data;
themes were discussed between co-authors to ensure consistency.
5
Results
Of the 15 parents who expressed interest in participating, 10 were eligible. Nine were female,
4 also had children aged over 5 years old, and 2 had more than one child under five years.
Nine interviews were conducted (one interview with both parents), with recruitment
continuing until the research team agreed that data saturation had been achieved.
Six main themes emerged; these built upon the initial question guide but also reflected the
agency and direction afforded to participants in the interview process. Hesitant compliers
were characterised by their belief in personal and social responsibility; poor knowledge of
diseases; their sources and use of vaccination information; their fear of vaccine risks and side
effects; their critique of what they called the ‘anti-vaccination movement’ and parents who
did not vaccinate; and their belief that vaccination should be a choice.
Personal and Social Responsibility
Overwhelmingly, all parents viewed vaccination as a way of preventing illness in their
children. Parents believed that if their child contracted a preventable infection, the
ramifications would be worse than any possible vaccination side effect. Recent local media
around the death of baby Riley Hughes1 from whooping cough [20] had put the consequences
of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) into the public sphere.
“That was the main reason why I do it. For [my child’s] safety… [I]f his
generation is vaccinated, then they’re safe.” (Participant 7)
1 Permission to name Riley Hughes in this manuscript was sought from his parents Catherine
and Greg Hughes.
6
The benefits of vaccinating children were thought to outweigh the risks of refusing. While
parents were cognisant of vaccine adverse events (e.g., illness, fever, convulsions, death),
most reported that VPDs are more probable than vaccine injury.
Most parents also reported that their decision to vaccinate was based on a desire to conform
with societal expectations of vaccination. This was in keeping with the strong view of parents
that vaccination was a social responsibility, and their acknowledgement of the need for high
community vaccination rates to reduce the risk of VPD outbreaks.
“…[Vaccines] are not bullet-proof. If there are enough people who are
immunised, then the chances of that kind of thing [VPDs] swooping around the
place is lessened.” (Participant 9)
Poor Knowledge of Diseases
Despite parents’ support for vaccination, for most their knowledge of vaccines and VPDs
seemed limited. They were unable to list symptoms and complications associated with
specific VPDs, and in some instances were unaware of the illnesses they were vaccinating
against. Several stated that their lack of knowledge was due to the reduced presence of VPDs
in the community.
Sources and use of vaccination information
Parents sought to build their knowledge by accessing information about childhood
vaccinations from a variety of sources. Those who expressed greater concerns about vaccines
were less likely to source information from medical professionals, instead relying on the
internet or alternative health providers. Despite all parents having turned to health
7
professionals for information about childhood vaccination, with mostly positive experiences,
many felt that the information they received was not sufficient or too partisan. While the
internet was the second most reported source of information about vaccines, most parents
who used this medium found it difficult to assess validity, with the information confusing and
difficult to understand.
Parents saw scope for more information to be delivered in the form of educational campaigns,
and specifically favoured the provision of more information about VPDs. Half felt there was
not enough positive information to overcome the damage that the anti-vaccination movement
has done with stories like the MMR-autism link and other vaccine ‘scares’.
“[P]erhaps they need to emphasise the side effects [symptoms and complications]
of the actual diseases…a lot of people just think measles is just an itchy rash and,
you know, a bit unwell. They don’t realise how severe it can be. Because, you
know, no-one sees it these days, really.” (Participant 5)
A number of parents felt it was their personal responsibility to seek more information if they
were unhappy with, or concerned about, the vaccination process.
Fear of Vaccine Risks and Side Effects
Despite their strong appreciation of the importance of childhood vaccination and their efforts
to inform themselves, all parents displayed elements of apprehension towards vaccination.
All reported being predominantly concerned about adverse events, e.g., fever, convulsions,
and permanent mental or physical incapacitation. Parents’ apprehensions were higher for
newer vaccines and influenza vaccine, which they felt lacked population wide safety
8
evaluation. Many reported that information sheets detailing rare complications (e.g.,
convulsions and permanent disability) distributed by providers during the consent process
increased their anxiety.
“Every time that needle goes into your child, you’re not sure if your child is going
to be the one that has the complication. There is that real fear that that could be
your child.” (Participant 3)
Parents were more likely to focus on rarer and more serious side effects rather than common
and relatively minor complications such as irritability, local inflammation and soreness. As a
result, parents reflected that this affected their risk-benefit analyses.
“I get the papers, the information sheets and read them and read the possible
outcomes and stuff, and then think – Hell!” (Participant 9)
A number of parents expressed apprehension about combined vaccines, perceiving this
method of vaccine delivery to overwhelm the immune system, and reporting previous ill
health in their children following these vaccinations. Half the parents had specific concerns
about the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, despite almost all stating that they were
aware that the research linking MMR to autism was fraudulent [21].
“… I know the myth has been debunked many times but the whole autism link. I
didn’t delay it but I was very nervous about everything surrounding it.”
(Participant 5)
9
The seasonal influenza vaccine was a significant concern for parents. All recalled the episode
in 2010 when a number of Australian children had serious adverse reactions to a locally
manufactured vaccine, leaving one child with permanent physical and mental disability [22].
Parents stated that they, and others they knew, were still apprehensive about getting the
influenza vaccine for their child.
“The Fluvax thing five years ago really hurt…there’s a lot of people still
traumatised…” (Participant 5)
Despite these concerns, all parents said that adhering to the vaccine schedule was their
preferred choice, and that the benefits of preventing illness outweighed any risks.
Furthermore, half accepted the recommended and funded seasonal influenza vaccine for their
children.
The ‘anti-vaccination movement’ and non-vaccinators
All parents had strong concerns about the ‘anti-vaccination movement’ damaging the public
health gains achieved through population-wide vaccination programs. Most were concerned
for the children of non-vaccinating parents, whom they felt were let down by their carers.
“…[T]here are children out there that have an opportunity to be protected against
vaccine preventable diseases, and through misinformation and through scare
campaigns, these parents are not vaccinating.” (Participant 3)
Parents were also concerned about the potential impact of falling vaccination rates and
weakening of community immunity on their family.
10
“I’m having another baby; it sounds really bad, but I will just slightly disassociate
myself with them [non-vaccinators] because I don’t feel comfortable.”
(Participant 7)
Parents also believed that the messages delivered by the anti-vaccination movement were too
‘loud,’ noting their own exposure to “negative” vaccination stories made arguments for the
benefits of vaccines difficult to hear.
However, parents were not all convinced that social exclusion of non-vaccinators was a good
thing. Some reported experiencing peer pressure to vaccinate that made them reluctant to
voice their own concerns in public. Two parents explicitly stated that social exclusion could
entrench vaccine rejecters’ deviation from the vaccine schedule by polarising and isolating
them.
Vaccination as a choice
Despite their critique of non-vaccinators, participants believed that vaccination should not be
compulsory. Many were critical of the (then pending) Australian Government vaccination
policy, ‘No Jab, No Pay,’ which withdrew childcare subsidies and financial assistance from
registered conscientious objectors [23]. Parents commented that the policy was too coercive
and that the Government needed to consider alternative supportive options for parental
decision-making. Furthermore, a number felt the current system was too inflexible in not
allowing any deviation from the vaccine schedule, given that in some cases an adverse
reaction in a sibling drove parents to pursue varying the timing and delivery of vaccines.
11
“I think we’re a choice society, where people want to make choices. And that
would be another way of advertising: you have two choices to vaccinate your
kids. You can vaccinate them all at once or you can vaccinate them a bit at a time.
And that gives some people, oh, I have a say in this, I have a choice, I’ve got
some control in this.” (Participant 4)
Discussion
The desire of hesitant compliers in this study to prevent illness in their children was the
primary motivator for adhering to the standard vaccine schedule. By their own accounts,
parents’ reduced exposure to VPDs meant that they had a reduced understanding of their
nature and severity. These findings are consistent with research showing that hesitant parents
frequently fail to recognise the need for vaccines for their children [24, 25]. Nevertheless,
even though parents in this study had poor knowledge, they were still highly concerned about
VPDs and perceived them to be severe. Future public health campaigns could highlight the
severity of VPDs and the particular susceptibility of children, while better presenting the rare
but potential risks of vaccines. However, this should be pursued with caution as ‘scare
campaigns’ can result in increased rejection [26].
Participants felt that their decision to vaccinate was as much for the community as it was for
the wellbeing of their children. This is in line with an international review finding that
protecting the community was a non-trivial factor in parental decisions to vaccinate [27].
Parents in our study felt it unfair that anti-vaccinators can simply use community immunity
for protection, a sentiment captured in previous studies [28-30]. Yet among our parents, this
sentiment extended to action, specifically driven by the well-publicised death of a Perth baby
from whooping cough [20]. The death brought home to parents their vulnerability to infection
12
in their own homes through unvaccinated visitors; as a result, many stated that they would be
prepared to isolate non-vaccinating families for the health of their own children. However,
they believed that government policies withdrawing eligibility for financial assistance to
vaccine refusers were overly coercive. Further research is required to determine whether such
policies are acceptable in the eyes of the public. Given the current uncertainty around this
policy strategy [31], alternative methods are needed to increase vaccination uptake [28].
These may include enhanced support for healthcare providers in engaging with hesitant
parents, and improving vaccine reminder systems to include motivational cues [7].
Additionally, having parents act as ‘local champions’ to assist with communicating accurate
vaccination messages to the community may complement formal healthcare provider directed
interventions [32].
While tragic outcomes from vaccine preventable diseases can galvanise parents’ support for
vaccination, adverse events from vaccines and the associated media attention can have a
countering effect on parents’ perceptions. Participants reported that side effects seemed more
‘real’ after seeing a Perth child injured in 2010 by influenza vaccination. This would augment
the ‘worst-case scenario’ thinking that already saw the parents focusing on serious side
effects over more common minor ones [33]. Local and social media, peer groups and
unreferenced information sources also influenced their apprehensions. Most children of
participants in this study were not born at the time of the influenza vaccine scare, but their
parents were acutely aware of it through high profile media coverage and discussions with
family and friends. If we consider this in light of parents’ fears around MMR – generated
almost two decades earlier – the perpetuation of fear and distrust across generations is
evident. Local and international vaccine scares have long lasting effects. To address this,
13
clear, accurate and concise information, backed by quality evidence, must be provided to
parents, ideally as early as pregnancy [34].
Parents’ exposure to the effects of disease and vaccine injuries in these two well-known local
cases reinforced a sense that it was their personal responsibility to inform themselves and
make appropriate decisions about vaccination. Given that the fears generated by both events
could theoretically inspire parents to pursue opposite courses of action, they could not rely on
others to resolve this for them. They accepted that they were faced with choices and risks
either way, and that their role as parents was to navigate and then act. Interventions to sustain
vaccination rates should reflect upon this dominant paradigm of ‘neoliberal mothering,’
wherein one does not simply follow health professionals’ recommendations, but is exhorted
to use agency to make responsible decisions [35]. Given our participants’ reported fears
generated by vaccine consent documents provided prior to immunisation, further attention
should also be given to more positive framing in these documents.
Study Limitations
Despite achieving data saturation, this study was limited by a small sample size in a discrete
city that may affect the generalisability of our findings to the broader population.
Furthermore, although eligibility criteria were included in the recruitment protocol, selfselection bias cannot be discounted. In a repeat of this study we would collect more detailed
demographic information on participants to provide context. It was beyond the scope of this
study to quantify the prevalence of hesitancy or the beliefs and attitudes discussed.
However, to our knowledge, this is the first study in Australia – and one of the first
internationally – aiming to define and inductively understand the views of parents who
14
comply with the vaccination schedule despite concerns. Future studies should determine the
prevalence of vaccine hesitancy in vaccine-complying parents in large representative
samples. This will assist to identify times during the vaccine schedule when hesitancy is most
likely, thus highlighting critical windows for intervention [15].
Conclusion
This study has highlighted the views of hesitant compliers, an important but under-studied
group.’ Participants were adherent to the vaccine schedule for personal safety and social
responsibility reasons, but had limited understanding of VPDs and were highly concerned
about vaccine risks. It is important that these factors – as well as parents’ social milieu and
exposure to vaccination and VPD events – are considered when developing interventions
aimed at supporting them to continue fully vaccinate their children on par with the relevant
schedule.
15
Table 1: Semi-structured interview question guide

Question Theme
Do you currently observe the recommended immunisation schedule for your child?
What are your reasons for doing this?
Behaviour
Have you ever delayed your child receiving an immunisation?
What are your reasons for doing this?
Behaviour
What is the most common information source you turn to for information about vaccines?
Why?
Behaviour
Are you comfortable with discussing your vaccination concerns with your doctor? Why/Why
not?
Behaviour
Has your child attended any places where vaccines have been required? If so, where? How
does this influence your maintenance of immunisations?
Behaviour
Are vaccinations something you discuss freely with other parents? What do you talk about? Behaviour
When you hear about a negative story related to vaccinations, what do you do? Behaviour
Do you ever hear any positive vaccination stories? What are they? Behaviour
Do you feel that there is adequate information provided to you about vaccinations? Behaviour
Do you believe that childhood vaccinations are still important and why? Knowledge
Which vaccinations do you think are the most important for children? Knowledge
What has influenced your attitudes and beliefs towards vaccinations? Attitudes
How have the vaccination experiences of your family and friends influenced your thoughts and
decisions about vaccinations?
Attitudes
What are your main concerns regarding childhood vaccinations? Attitudes
How safe do you think immunisations are for children? Attitudes
Are you concerned that vaccinations will not work? Attitudes
Do you believe that children receive too many immunisations? Attitudes
Do you think it is preferable for a child to have multiple vaccines in one shot or individual
vaccines?
Attitudes

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Do you know anyone who has had a bad reaction to a vaccination? Attitudes
How concerned are you that your child might get a serious side effect from a shot? Attitudes
Do you think that the side-effects of vaccinations are less dangerous than the disease of which
they inoculate against?
Attitudes
What are the reasons why you believe vaccination is important? Attitudes
Are there any immunisations you would reconsider getting for your child? Attitudes
Would you ever delay childhood immunisations for a specific reason? Attitudes
Do you worry about the effects of under-vaccination in the community? Attitudes
In your opinion, why do some people refuse to vaccinate their children? Attitudes
Do you remember any events in the past that would discourage you from getting a vaccine for
your children?
Attitudes
Do you trust the healthcare system in making decisions about which vaccines to provide? Attitudes
Do you think vaccines should be compulsory? Why or why not? Attitudes
What are your thoughts on the ‘No Jab, No Pay’ policy announced recently by the Federal
government?
Attitudes

** closed ended questions were followed up with open ended probing questions
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