PIECE 2: DATA COLLECTION
Table of Contents
Research Philosophy 3
Data collection methods 6
Summary of results presentation 6
Supporting appendices 9
Reference List 11
Research philosophy is a significant topic and in this context, it can be said that it is one of the most important aspects when any research study is taken into consideration. According to Cazeaux (2017), research philosophy is found to be dealing with the nature, source as well as development of knowledge. In other words, it can be said that research philosophy is referred to as a belief regarding the ways that can be implemented, which further helps in determining a phenomenon regarding the way, the data must be gathered, analysed as well as used (Business Research Methodology, 2021). The overall idea for creating knowledge might sound to be thoughtful, it is also referred to as being involved in the creation of knowledge, which is an important part of completing any research study. With respect to research philosophy, it has been stated by Kennedy (2017) that addressing the philosophy of the study in a particular study includes being conscious as well as the formulation of certain beliefs as well as assumptions. When the research onion is taken into consideration, it has been found that research philosophy is placed at the outermost layer of this research onion (Dougherty et al., 2019). Therefore, in this context, it can be said that it is one of the most important aspects of the study that helps the researcher in shaping an overall study in an effective way.
When any study is taken into consideration, it has been found that each stage of the research study is majorly based on several assumptions regarding the nature as well as sources of knowledge (Žukauskas et al., 2019). The philosophy of research is important as it majorly reflects the important assumptions. In the context of these assumptions, it can be said that these assumptions provide a base for setting a strategy for any study. In the context of research philosophy, it has been found that there are following major philosophies in a research study, which are listed as follows:
- Positivism: In the context of positivism philosophy, it can be said that this particular philosophy seems to be difficult when it comes to explaining in a succinct as well as precise way. Abu-Alhaija (2019) has explained that there are significant differences between research settings, where this philosophy is utilised by the researcher. In the words of Blok (2018) positivism philosophy is found to be adhering to the perception that only factual knowledge that has been gained by observations are reliable. with respect to the studies that include positivism philosophy, it has been found that the researchers’ role is merely limited to the collection of data and interpreting the data objectively. In the context of such studies, the findings from such researches are generally observable as well as quantifiable (Encinas et al., 2020). It has also been stated by Schriewer (2017), this particular philosophy is majorly dependent upon the quantifiable observations that generally leads to statistical analysis. It has been further noted by Eggink and Dorrestijn (2018), positivism philosophy is in accordance with the empirical study that stems the knowledge from the experiences of humans. This form of study is found to have an ontological, atomistic perception regarding the world as comprising observable, discrete elements as well as the events that interact in a determined, observable as well as regular way.
- Interpretivism: In regard to this philosophy, it has been found that this particular philosophy is also referred to as interpretivism, which includes the researcher interpreting the major elements present in the study. According to Qutoshi (2018), the researchers that implement this form of philosophy in the study mainly assumes that access to reality is mainly with the help of social constructions, such as consciousness, language, instruments and shared beliefs and meanings. In the context of the development of this philosophy, it can be said that the development is majorly on the basis of the positivism critique in terms of social sciences. It has been further opined by Kornberger and Mantere (2020) that this philosophy mainly focuses on qualitative analysis and not on quantitative analysis. In addition, it has also been found that this particular philosophy is majorly linked with the philosophical position of idealism and it is used for the groups in order to have a diverse approach, which includes social constructivism, phenomenology as well as hermeneutics. As per this approach, it is crucial for the researcher to act as a social actor in order to appreciate the difference present between individuals (Horne, 2021). This particular philosophy majorly focuses on the meaning and it may deploy several methodologies for reflecting several aspects of the issue.
- Objectivism: In regard to objectivism, it can be said that it states that knowledge exists and it is waiting to be identified, therefore ignoring all the crucial roles of meaning in terms of knowledge construction (Ponce et al., 2020). In regard to this philosophy, it can be said that this particular philosophy is found to be dependent upon the idea of independence of reality from the mind of a human. It has been found that this particular philosophy is majorly based on the assumption of a specific scientific approach towards knowledge development (Vermaas and Vial, 2018). It can be segregated into two forms, direct and critical. Direct objectivism is referred to as naïve realism and it can be described as the thing that is perceived, it comes in that specific way. In other words, it has been stated by Nguyen et al. (2021) it majorly portrays the findings with the help of human senses. On the other hand, critical objectivism states that humans experience all the sensations as well as images of the real world. According to Quay et al. (2018), images, as well as sensations of the real world, can be deceptive and generally do not objectify the real scenario.
- Pragmatism: In the context of this philosophy, it has been found that the research question plays the most important role. The researcher implementing this philosophy combines both interpretivisms as well as a positive approach within the scope of research as per the research question (Paul, 2017). In the context of this philosophy, it has been found that this particular philosophy accepts that the concepts are relevant only when they are able to support further actions. The pragmatics identify that there are several methods for interpreting the scenario and undertaking any study, and no single perception can provide a full description and there could be several realities.
With respect to this present study, the researcher has taken pragmatism into consideration. One of the most important reasons for selecting this philosophy is that this study is mainly either objective or subjective in nature. In addition, this form of philosophy will help the researcher in conducting a value as well as biased free study (Coghlan, 2017). In this regard, it can be said that it will help the researcher in providing an effective result for the study. In addition, it has also been opined by Rosiek and Gleason (2017) that this particular philosophy allows potential as well as the possibility to carry out work with respect to both, qualitative as well as quantitative data (Hassan et al., 2018). In this regard, it can be said that it further helps the researcher to identify the crucial points that help in linking the qualitative and quantitative data.
On the other hand, it has been found that the researcher has rejected positivism, interpretivism and objective philosophies. In this regard, it can be said that the main reason for rejecting these philosophies is the nature of the study and the data collected for the study. Regarding positivism, it can be said that it has been disregarded by the researcher in this study because implementing interpretivism means that the study will focus on subjective aspects of the study (Novikov and Novikov, 2019). However, in this present study, both aspects such as objective as well as subjective aspects are to be considered, hence, the researcher has not implemented interpretivism. This philosophy also has significant scope for bias, thus, to eliminate this issue, interpretivism has been disregarded. On the other hand, objectivism is also considered, as the researcher is required to focus on both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the study, therefore, this philosophy has also been rejected. Hence, on an overall basis, it can be said that the researcher has found certain loopholes in the rest of the philosophies, except Pragmatism. Therefore, pragmatism philosophy has been considered for this study.
Data collection methods
In the context of this study, the researcher has considered, the primary method for carrying out the study in an effective way. In order to carry out a primary study for the selected topic, it has been identified that the researcher has used mixed methods for conducting this primary study. In this regard, the researcher will collect data by implementing mixed methodologies, such as the quantitative method and qualitative method. In regard to the quantitative method, it can be said that this method is useful for collecting data through surveys. On the other hand, the interview is the aptest method for collecting qualitative data for this study.
Summary of results presentation
Part 1: Survey results
On the basis of the results, it has been found that five close-ended questions were asked from the respondents. The summary of the results are stated as follows:
Question 1: According to a 5-star rating perimeter, how user friendly and quick would you rate social media websites in your job-hunting process during the pandemic?
In regards to this question, it has been found that most of the participants (47.73%) have given four-star ratings in terms of experience regarding their job hunt during the pandemic. In this context, it can be said that the overall experience of the international students (job seekers) had a fairly good experience in terms of hunting for a job on social media sites. [Refer to figure 1]
Question 2: Which social media website would you rate as most productive according to your job-hunting experience?
In the context of this question, it has been found that around 52% of the participants have stated that LinkedIn is the most effective social media platform that has helped them in getting a job. In this context, it can be said that LinkedIn is the most effective platform for finding a job. [Refer to figure 2].
Question 3: How would you rate your job-hunting experience?
With respect to this question, around 47% of the respondents have stated that they had a relevantly easy procedure for hunting the job. In this regard, it can be said that searching for a job on online platforms is relatively easy and hassle-free [Refer to figure 3].
Question 4: Do you agree that the English language is a barrier for international students as part of their Job Interviews?
In the context of this question, it has been found that the around 68% of the participants have agreed to the given statement that the English language is a barrier for international students while finding jobs and as a part of their job interviews. [Refer to figure 4]
Question 5: How many jobs did you apply for online during covid-19?
With respect to this, it has been found that around 32% of the people have applied to 1 to 5 jobs during the pandemic, around 20% of the respondents have applied to 5 to 10 jobs during the pandemic, 18% have applied to 10 to 25 jobs and rest have stated that they have applied to many jobs that they lose a track. In this regard, it has been found that the respondents have applied to a lot of jobs during the pandemic period. [Refer to figure 5].
Part 2: Qualitative (Open-end discussion)
Question 1: Do you think that the number of job applications made can determine the time frame of securing a job?
On the basis of the discussion, it has been summarised that the number of job applications is not significantly helpful in determining the time frame for securing a job. In this regard, it has been identified that people can apply to several job applications and applying to the most relevant job application is helpful in gaining a job. In addition, it is also important for the candidate to pose a significant set of skills to be eligible for securing a job. Apart from this, significant experience in relevant skills would be helpful in securing a job.
Question 2: How far do you think that social media profiles of applicants have replaced the conventional CV?
In this regard, it has been summarised that social media profiles have significant replaced conventional CVs. The profiles on social media platforms distinctively tell a lot about the candidate and with appropriate tools, it helps the employer to shortlist the effective and the right set of candidates. Thus, it can be said that social media profiles have replaced the conventional CV.
Question 3: Do you think that Linked In is a virtual CV for a candidate?
In this regard, some of the participants have stated that LinkedIn is a virtual CV platform for a particular candidate. This platform is helpful for demonstrating professional skills and eventually help in demonstrating the overall profile of a candidate in a better way. However, it is important for the candidate to ensure that LinkedIn has all the correct and apt information about the candidate.
Question 4: Do you think that Job hunting experience during the pandemic was relaxed while having strong references in the relevant industry?
In this regard, it has been found that at the time of the pandemic there has been a reduction in job opportunities. Therefore, having a strong reference base in the relevant industry is very helpful for candidates looking for a job in a relevant field. It helps in promoting skills and also help in gaining a job in a particular industry. On the other hand, it is also helpful in establishing a better relationship within the industry.
Question 5: How critical do you think the Native British accent is a hurdle while taking job interviews?
With respect to this question, some of the participants have stated that native British accents act as a major limitation in securing jobs and clearing job interviews. International students have different accents than native British, which provides inclarity of speech and thus eventually hampers the job interview process of international students.
With respect to the response of the first respondent, it has been found that the number of job applications made helps the candidates in securing a job. In this context, the respondent states that out of 51% of the job seekers receive job offers by at least giving three job interviews. In regard to the second question, it has been found that social media profiles have massively replaced the conventional CV. It has been further stated by the respondent that the employer firstly goes through the social media profile before offering the job. It helps them in conducting a background check of the applicant. Further, the respondent also states that LinkedIn cannot take place of the conventional CV. In this context, it has been stated that the candidate can make their profile interesting by adding some additional features to their LinkedIn profile. Thus, LinkedIn cannot replace the conventional CV. During a pandemic, the organisations were not hiring, so even though having a strong reference within the relevant industry could not help the job seekers to get the job. Regarding Native British accent, there should be clarity of speech while communicating.
When the responses of the second participant are taken into consideration, it has been analysed that it is necessary for the candidate for maintaining a time frame in terms of securing a job. In the context of the conventional CVs of the candidates and its replacement with social media profiles of the candidates, the participant has responded that it is important for a candidate to have a social media profile because it makes it easier for the recruiter to see all the major credibilities and have a better image of the candidates. Regarding LinkedIn as a virtual CV for the candidate, it has been opined by this participant that LinkedIn act as a platform for demonstrating their CV for the recruiters. Having a significant reference in the relevant industry have helped the job seekers to gain jobs during the pandemic as well. Being able to communicate properly is the most crucial asset for a job seeker, and hence, having a better British accent is helpful while taking job interviews, as stated by the second participant.
With respect to the third respondent, it has been stated that the number of job applications made help the job seekers in securing a job, as getting a job is a lengthy process and needs ample time. Further, in regard to the second question, the respondent has stated that social media profiles have replaced conventional CVs in the last few years. The respondent has further stated that updating information in the LinkedIn act as a virtual CV for job seekers. Having strong references has not been helpful in securing jobs for job seekers because the pandemic has created a lot of uncertainties across the world. The participant also stated that British Accent is very different and it is mandatory for the job seekers to have a better and clear accent.
In the context of the responses given by the fourth participant, it has been found that the respondent has stated that it is mandatory for applying for a number of job applications. In this regard, the participant has further added that one never knows which job application will land up getting a job. In the context of the second question, the respondent has stated that social media have significantly replaced conventional CVs, as there is a significant shift towards social media. Additionally, the respondent has further stated that LinkedIn act as a virtual CV for the participants. Having a significant reference in the relevant industry is also helpful to get a job and it has helped many to get a job during the pandemic. In the context of the last question, the respondent stated that the native British accent is not a hurdle because knowing the language is the key and not the accent.
Figure 1: User-friendliness of social media platforms for searching jobs
(Source: Created by the researcher)
Figure 2: Most productive social media sites for searching jobs
(Source: Created by the researcher)
Figure 3: Social media job hunting experience
(Source: Created by the learner)
Figure 4: Native English language acting as a barrier for international students regarding online job advertisements
(Source: Created by the learner)
Figure 5: Application to online jobs during a pandemic
(Source: Created by the learner)
Abu-Alhaija, A.S., 2019. From Epistemology to Structural Equation Modeling: An Essential Guide in Understanding the Principles of Research Philosophy in Selecting the Appropriate Methodology. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 13(9), pp.122-128.
Blok, V., 2018. Philosophy of innovation: A research agenda. Philosophy of Management, 17(1), pp.1-5.
Business Research Methodology, 2021. Research Philosophy. Available at: https://research-methodology.net/research-philosophy/ [Accessed on 12 December 2021]
Cazeaux, C., 2017. Art, research, philosophy (p. 202). Taylor & Francis.
Coghlan, D., 2017. How might we learn about the philosophy of ODC research from 24 volumes of ROCD? An invitation to interiority. In Research in organizational change and development. Emerald Publishing Limited.
Dougherty, M.R., Slevc, L.R. and Grand, J.A., 2019. Making research evaluation more transparent: Aligning research philosophy, institutional values, and reporting. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(3), pp.361-375.
Eggink, W. and Dorrestijn, S., 2018, June. Philosophy of Technology x Design: the practical turn. In Design Research Society 2018: Catalyst (pp. 190-199). Design Research Society.
Encinas, E., Durrant, A.C., Mitchell, R. and Blythe, M., 2020, April. Metaprobes, metaphysical workshops and sketchy philosophy. In Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-13).
Hassan, N.R., Mingers, J. and Stahl, B., 2018. Philosophy and information systems: where are we and where should we go?.
Horne, J., 2021. The philosophy of research.
Kennedy, A.M., 2017. Macro-social marketing research: philosophy, methodology and methods. Journal of Macromarketing, 37(4), pp.347-355.
Kornberger, M. and Mantere, S., 2020. Thought experiments and philosophy in organizational research. Organization Theory, 1(3), p.2631787720942524.
Nguyen, M.N., Pandey, S.R., Thar, K., Tran, N.H., Chen, M., Bradley, W.S. and Hong, C.S., 2021. Distributed and democratized learning: Philosophy and research challenges. IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 16(1), pp.49-62.
Novikov, A.M. and Novikov, D.A., 2019. Research methodology: From philosophy of science to research design. CRC Press.
Paul, K.B., 2017. Introducing interpretive approach of phenomenological research methodology in environmental philosophy: A mode of engaged philosophy in the Anthropocene. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1), p.1609406917724916.
Ponce, O.A., Pagán-Maldonado, N. and Galánb, J.G., 2020. Philosophy of educational research: New epistemological, methodological and historical approach. International Journal of Educational Excellence, 6(2), pp.63-79.
Quay, J., Bleazby, J., Stolz, S.A., Toscano, M. and Webster, R.S. eds., 2018. Theory and philosophy in education research: Methodological dialogues. Routledge.
Qutoshi, S.B., 2018. Phenomenology: A philosophy and method of inquiry. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1).
Rosiek, J. and Gleason, T., 2017. Philosophy in research on teacher education: An ontoethical turn. The SAGE handbook of research on teacher education, pp.29-48.
Schriewer, J., 2017. Between the philosophy of self-cultivation and empirical research: Educational studies in Germany. Knowledge and the study of education: An international exploration, pp.75-99.
Vermaas, P.E. and Vial, S. eds., 2018. Advancements in the Philosophy of Design. Springer.
Žukauskas, P., Vveinhardt, J. and Andriukaitienė, R., 2018. Philosophy and paradigm of scientific research. Management Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility, 121.