Write 7 pages thesis on the topic entering into a contract in roman law. Under Roman law, while entering into a contract, it was necessary to adhere strictly to certain forms and if those forms were not satisfied then the agreement would be deemed to be invalid and would fail. According to Gaius, if a claimant who sought recoveries for the destruction of his vines referred to them as such, he would lose his cause then and there because a correct application of the law would require him to refer to those vines as trees – the correct term to be used2. Moreover, there were only some days in which magistrates would sit to adjudicate public business.
Five specific remedies were available under Roman civil law, which was known as legal action because there were specifically prescribed under civil law and were cast in specific legal forms that had to be strictly followed. The procedure for Roman Citizens to approach a magistrate for the resolution of a dispute was set out in the Law of XII – the Tables. According to the procedure, the plaintiff would generally be obliged to appear in person, except for some notable exceptions, for example, a slave could not appear in person but had to have a free person represent him. The procedure consisted of five actions in law -three declaratory actions of the law were to be taken first: legis actio Sacramentum, legis action to per indices postulation and legis action to per condition” followed by two executives “legal action to per manus infection and legis action to per pignoris capionem. . These formalities had to be followed strictly and the rites of each action were to be made in swears before a magistrate and any small error could result in a loss of the process.
There is also a dispute that arises in the case of Albus with Brutus on the slave, as well as with Decius for the supply of defective grain. Therefore it appears that Albus may have to approach the magistrate on an appointed day when he is in presence to present the facts of the respective .cases in order to try and attain justice.
I will pay for the following article Gender Issues Surrounding Child Marriages in South Asia. The work is to be 7 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. Allowing young girls to get married earlier it stagnates their mental growth, affects their physical growth by bearing children before they have physically matured, and removes opportunities for education and work.2 In turn, these problems create gender-based issues such as economic marginalization, poor health care, high sexual health risks, encountering domestic violence through the male or his relatives, frequent abuses from males, and getting trapped in a cycle of poverty and dependence on men.34As such this marriage is prohibited by international treaties and countries due to the revocation of a basic right of free choice.5However, despite global initiatives in eradicating this practice and the passing of various treaties and bills that deems child marriage to be illegal, up to 46% of women in South Asia of the ages 20-24 reported to have been married at very young ages, with India alone having about 10 million child brides despite The 2006 Prohibition of Child Marriage Act.6With the strong influence of patriarchy in nearly all South Asian nations, it will take a lot of conscious effort by women, men, and higher authorities to gradually reduce the number of child marriages in this region, as well as in changing the traditional mindset of those who allow and continue to patronize such acts against human rights of children and especially females.
The high prevalence of child marriages in South Asia has been sanctioned by the prevailing patriarchal societies which encompass rules and legislations of states and nations, and in turn is fueled by gaps and poor enforcement of anti-child marriage laws, poverty, illiteracy, natural disaster or conflicts.7In addition, the existence of personal laws in some Muslim countries affect how laws regarding forced marriages are imposed or sanctioned, wherein laws tied with marriage, inheritance, divorce, and custody are tried differently under Sharia law, allowing the perpetuation of child marriages as the Sharia laws deem .fit.
Provide a 8 pages analysis while answering the following question: South to North Water Transfer Project. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. The southern and eastern parts of China are greatly influenced by the monsoon winds from the Arabian Sea. These winds are having a high level of water content which causes extensive rain in china but these winds reach northern and eastern parts of China only when winds are strong and monsoon season is at its peak. During weak monsoon winds, only southern and eastern areas are getting rains and northern and eastern parts remain deprived of summer rains. This scarcity of water has resulted in the destruction of strong dynasties in china because it leads to extreme drought and economic crisis.
In order to overcome this scarcity of water Government of China planned for a grand engineering project of transferring south water resources to the north by spreading an amazing design canal system. It has been planned that at the end this grand project will be able to transfer 44.8bn cubic meters of water to north each year. This is going to be one of the masterpieces ever build in the world. The plan of this project is to transfer water from south lying river Yangtze to the north in order to overcome the thirst of the north. North of China is actually having economically important and strong industrial as well as technological hubs of the country including Beijing which individually accommodated about 22 million people. This much large population in North results in a shortage of water obtained from aquifers in that region. Also in most of the areas covered in North, industrial development was only possible at the expense of agriculture in order to complete water requirements in industries.
South to north water project is expected to be completed in 2050 and was started in 2002. This mega project is based on the fact that the four major rivers of China, named Yangtze, Yellow River, Haihe and Huaihe will be linked together. This project explicitly consists of the construction of three major transfer routes of water extending from south to north and supplementary distribution system which will be capable of distributing water to eastern and western parts as well.
Complete 1 page APA formatted article: Summary Report. YourFirst YourLast Electronic Privacy: “Big Brother Big Business” While some of us take our privacy seriously apparently, David takes us on a tour that reveals that maybe we are not as private as we would want to think we are. Companies are using advanced technology to monitor our every move, the driving habits are being recorded by travel companies, the phone records are being monitored, browser history is being stored and the government uses as evidence in a court of law. The documentary shows how biometric technology is being used by the FBI, the border patrol and even in schools after the companies collect the data about the people the government is then using it against the people. David shows the audience how surveillance can be malicious if it lands on the wrong hands. He reveals how a former employer steals his fired employees phone records, a woman who loses his job due to mistaken identity. He also shows how a man discovers that his rental car company was tracking him every move.
While most people will take the freedom they enjoy for granted, David utilizes the documentary to remind us that freedom is a precious thing and should not be taken for granted. Many people would want to keep their email conversations to themselves, the text messages we send to remain a conversation between ourselves and the recipient but that is not the case anymore. The governments super machines sift through all this communication data and archive them.
The documentary also introduces to the viewers to the little known department of AOL, which works closely with law enforcement agencies on request for individuals information. These companies are monitoring the employees, shoppers and diners observed and analyzed. Bank records and financial statements, communication trends and patterns, are being monitored stored and archived for future references if need is. It is clear now that with technology comes with challenges and one of them is the loss of freedom.
Faber, David . “Big Brother Big Business Part 2.” YouTube. YouTube, 7 Sept. 2008. Web. 6 May 2014. .
Faber, David . “Big Brother Big Business Part 1.” YouTube. YouTube, 7 Sept. 2008. Web. 6 May 2014. .
Complete 1 page APA formatted article: Ultimate Factories: Coca-Cola. Challenges Facing Coca-Cola For a very long time, I have known that Coca-Cola is one of the most successful multinationals in the world. As a leading beverage company, Coca-Cola has had a long history. However, little did I know that such a big multinational faces a myriad of challenges until I watched the Ultimate Factories: Coca-Cola. From this video clip, I found out that the company has been battling procurement, transportation, sustainability, forecasting, and fulfillment challenges.
As a multinational, the company has established a series of subsidiaries in many countries. So, the major challenge faced in its procurement system has more to do with supplier contracts. There have been several cases of compliance in which many suppliers fail to provide the company with the required materials and supplies as agreed. This coupled with cost containment, has affected the company a great deal. Besides, since the company operates in many countries, it has had to deal with transportation hiccups which have been caused by poor state of roads in most places. This has made it much difficult to get supplies in time and supply its products to the customers.
Moreover, the company has faced environmental challenges resulting from the fact that most of its commodities have been associated with obesity. Thus, the company has not achieved its sustainability because many clients are now abandoning its GMO food products for more healthy ones. On the other hand, more problems still persist because the company can not efficiently make accurate forecasts. The unpredictability in business operations mostly blamed for stiff competition and changes in demand have made the company to realize reduced sales and low profitability. Lastly, it faces challenges in its fulfillment in that there are inadequate expertise to man and properly coordinate the handling and shipping of orders.
Write a 6 pages paper on american legal systems. Under this presumption, defendants are entitled to a presumption of innocence. Defendants do not have to prove their innocence. The government must establish guilt ‘beyond a reasonable doubt.’ This right and others are outlined in the Fifth and Sixth Amendments which will be further examined in this discussion.
Fundamental rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution’s the Bill of Rights includes the right to due process of law (Fifth Amendment) and the right to a speedy, public and fair trial along with the right to counsel and to confront the accuser, (Sixth Amendment). These aforementioned two Amendments are essential to the U.S. criminal justice system functioning as the framers of the Constitution envisioned it. The omission of all or parts of these Amendments in any phase of the criminal justice system deprives a defendant their right to the due process of law guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment. Due process, in essence, is a clause that encompasses the precepts of these Amendments. It protects U.S. citizens from policies or practices which infringe upon basic, fundamental
concepts of justice and fairness whether or not actions by the government violate specific guarantees of the Bill of Rights. The criterion of criminal law is whether the disputed policy or practice violates an essential standard of justice and liberty inherent in the concept of a free society. Particularly important to this precept is the Fifth and Sixth Amendments.
Criminal justice in the U.S. is a complex system involving local, state and federal jurisdictions, all unique in their structure and policies but decisions handed down by any court is based on the due process of law guaranteed by the Constitution. The Fifth Amendment guarantees the defendant’s right to ‘due process of law’ and from being subjected to ‘double jeopardy’ or testifying against themselves. Double jeopardy means being put on trial twice for the .same offence (U.S. Department of State, 2001). . The ‘Miranda Rights’ are covered by the Fifth Amendment.  .Even those who have never been issued a traffic citation can recite these rights if they have watched television in the last 40 years.
I will pay for the following article The Issue of Legalization of Drugs. The work is to be 5 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. Being a complex as well as a self-regulating system, society has designed several measures in order to limit the negative impact of the actions of its citizens. That is the main goal of the legal system. However, sometimes the citizens are willing to introduce changes into what should be legal and what should not be legal. A good example is the legalization of recreational drugs. .
To begin with, it would be highly advantageous to define some of the key terms that will be used in this paper. The first one is decriminalization. It is clear that this word is derived from criminalization, but with a negative prefix. So, the basic definition of decriminalization would focus on the lack of criminal punishment for the use of the drugs in question. Thus, it may not be a criminal offense to smoke cannabis, but it will be a crime to distribute it. On the other hand, legalization is focused on the state when all the actions that are carried out with the drugs are not considered to be illegal. While these terms seem to be similar, there should not be mixed together. Finally, recreational drugs are the category of drugs that are supposed to stimulate positive experience (feelings, state of mind of the user, etc.).
First of all, the legitimacy of the need to prohibit recreational drugs is deeply rooted in that those substances are able to harm a considerable number of people. From a broad perspective, it may be justified by the following logic, which was expressed by Mills: “the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others” (“Ethics in practice: an anthology”, 2014, 295). The harm that the author is talking about might be seen in the negative effects on the organism of the drug users (Hyde & Setaro, 2009, 119). It must be noted that the war on drugs should be declared as a social policy rather than a particular initiative of law enforcement agencies (Leuw & Marshall, 1994, 249).
Hi, need to submit a 1250 words paper on the topic Critical Thinking as a Way of Setting Out Ideas. Theories and methods are proven or disputed, still, due to critical thinking these conclusions are not final and they are always exposed to comments and criticism. Thanks to critical thinking knowledge are added to all fields allowing for the perpetual evolution of disciplines. Critical thinking and critical approach contribute to the desirable skills that all students aim to – to be able to assess decisively situations. Universities insist on critical thinking because it develops and evolves intelligence and associative thinking.
Critical thinking has been interpreted and measured in numberless ways. According to Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) critical thinking “typically involves the individual’s ability to do some or all of the following: identify central issues, make correct inferences from data, deduce conclusions from the information or data provided, interpret whether conclusions are warranted on the basis of the data given, and evaluate evidence or authority” (p. 118). They note that the impact of activated critical thinking is evidenced in postsecondary education. The imperative that students have to concentrate and develop their critical thinking in their postsecondary education identifies the need for scholars to accent on other aspects of thinking while at university.
Very often students receive feedback on their assignments stating “lack of critical thinking”. What is often meant is that the paper does not show critical analyses. Scriven and Paul (2001) describe critical thinking as “the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generalized by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning or communication, as a guide to belief and action (1).” Critical thinking is a process and not an end.
You will prepare and submit a term paper on Sociological Explanations for Inequalities in Health Care. Your paper should be a minimum of 2250 words in length. Quality or inequality, especially dependent on the social status on the individual or high social-economic status gives high-quality health care, considering rich countries how to devote and concerned about health care, as a base for progression and inverse. Countries with the shallowest gradient between the rich and the poor (e.g. Japan) have the best health indicators while those with steep gradients between the rich and the poor (e.g. the USA) have the worst health indicators. Observing low-status ethnic groups it came out that they face severe economic discrimination starting from access to loans and to basic of participation in economic life, such as healthcare and health insurance, adequate schooling and access to the legal system. This leads to the explicit outcomes of lower wages and participation in the informal sector of the economy with its increased exposure to health hazards at work and correlation with addiction and violent behavior. These political and economic inequalities are added to by a general disparagement and denigration of cultural values and health belief systems, and stereotypical representation of ethnic groups as responsible for their own problems. The social pattern experiences of poorer health are based on a class position concerning gender health issues and ethnicity. People in lower classes suffer more from chronic disease and their children weightless at birth and they are shorter. There are also market inequalities in access to preventative services. National and international patterns of growing inequalities of wealth and income in the West mean that inequalities of health are also widening. The experience of poverty, homelessness, and unemployment –socio-economic inequality – results in social exclusion, a lack of social networks and low levels of social support resulting in low self-esteem leading to greater vulnerability to disease and early death.
You will prepare and submit a term paper on Health Care Administration. Your paper should be a minimum of 1000 words in length. The issue of misalignment worsened with increasing establishment of private healthcare institutions coupled with a high number of citizens without health insurance covers. Out of selfish profit objectives, pricing of services in hospitals remains uneven. Correspondingly, the quality of care varies from one institution to another. As a result, the patient population is thrown into an environment of unprecedented fluctuation in terms of quality and cost of medical services (Wolper, 2010). In order to reduce and even eliminate fragmentation in healthcare, service providers should adopt the use of programs that increase transparency and coordination. One of such programs is Integrated Delivery System (IDS).
Being one of the employees in an institution affected by health care fragmentation, it would be appropriate to initiate a quality improvement project involving the utilization of an integrated delivery system in service provision. The purpose of this project is to create a network of interdisciplinary medical experts using a suitable online interface. Currently, there is limited interaction between independent doctors working within a single healthcare institution (David & Neil, 2006). Usually, personnel involved in the diagnosis of patients act independently and do not participate in subsequent treatment procedures like the prescription of medication or even surgery. Moreover, this issue of limited interaction adversely affects medical personnel working in distinct healthcare institutions. Admittedly, the absence of care coordination between providers leads to problems like under treatment or overtreatment of patients. In this context, the proposed integrated delivery system will merge knowledge and protocols used by institutions sharing the same system. In addition, the system will provide an avenue through which doctors can consult each other and share information regarding a given patient. .